In February 1991, then-President Bush took great pains to argue to the American public that his proposed Gulf War conformed to the historic principles of Just War theory. The current President Bush has not made an appeal to Just War theory to support his proposed war in Iraq. He cannot. Pre-emptive strikes violate Just War theory. We are being asked to support America embarking on a war that contradicts the religious and military thinking on the justified use of force that has been dominant for centuries.
Taught in the United States War College as part of military strategy and forming part of the thinking of many major world religions, including Islam, Just War theory has been more than 1500 years in the making. St. Augustine was the first to develop an argument for the possible use of force by Christians. As the Roman Empire was under attack by invading barbarians, he asked if the Christian could justify taking a human life. Augustine gave a very qualified "yes" answer. Force could be justified "in defense of the vulnerable other." Augustine did not even include self-defense in the first list of Just War Principles.
It was another Saint, Thomas Aquinas, who added self-defense to the list of possible justifications of war by persons of religious conscience. His list of limitations and justifications of force are still the guiding tenets of Just War Theory. They are: Just Cause (usually taken to mean defense against an attack), Right Authority (established political authorities, not private citizens), Right Intention (not the love of cruelty or the lust for power), Good Outcome (there must be more good resulting than the evil done by violence), Proportionality (do not use more force than necessary), Reasonable Hope for Success (have a reasonable chance that peace will indeed result), and Last Resort (all non-violent means of diplomacy must have been exhausted).
No part of Just War theory supports a first-strike option. No part of Just War theory supports the "go it alone" strategic thinking of Vice-President Dick Cheney, first outlined in his 1992 white paper, "Defense Planning Guidance." This document proposes "anticipatory action to defend ourselves," that is, striking first against those who have not yet, and might never attack us. This clearly violates the "Just Cause" principle of Just War theory. Cheney also argues that the United States "act independently" in the use of force without global cooperation and even without coalitions of allies, if necessary. This violates the "Last Resort" tenet of Just War doctrine that all diplomatic means be exhausted before the use of force can be justified.
Just War theory is a central part of the serious religious reflection, over many centuries, on the possible use of force. It forms part of the thinking on the use of force of almost every major religion in the world. It is widely studied by political and military strategists.
It is not surprising that the current Bush administration does not mention Just War theory. First Strike Strategy is not supported by any religious or moral doctrine of the justified use of force.
Augustine wanted to know if Christians could resist barbarians. If the United States adopts and acts on a First Strike Option, then it is Americans who have become the barbarians. We will have learned nothing from 1,500 years of moral reasoning.
The Rev. Susan B. Thistlethwaite is President and Professor of Theology of UCC-related Chicago Theological Seminary. This colujmn appeared in the Oct. 15 Chicago Tribune.
An ecumenical group of Christian academicians announce radical departure from traditionally-held views of salvation.
Rejecting a centuries-old hall mark of Christian teaching on salvation, an ecumenical group of Christian scholars in September said Jews can be saved without coming to faith in Jesus Christ.
Claiming "Jews are in an eternal covenant with God," 21 members of the Christian Scholars Group on Christian-Jewish Relations challenged the traditional Christian view of Jesus as savior for all humankind. Because faithful Jews are already in right relationship with God, they said, "We renounce missionary efforts directed at converting Jews."
"We know there has been a long tradition of anti-Judaism within that Christian tradition," says Joseph Tyson, chair of the scholars group and professor emeritus at Southern Methodist University. "It's based on certain misperceptions of history, and it's theologically invalid ... We're convinced that a re-thinking of Christian attitudes toward Jews is central, indispensable and sacred."
The 10-point statement, "A Sacred Obligation," marks the latest in a series of attempts to bridge historic enmity and divisions between Christians and Jews. It comes in response to "Dabru Emet," a call from Jewish scholars in September 2000 for Jews to rethink their understanding of Christianity. It follows also on the heels of an Aug. 12, 2002, statement in which Jews and a committee of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops said attempts to convert Jews are "no longer theologically acceptable."
In the United Church of Christ, despite general support for the sentiment expressed, UCC voices take issue with certain specifics.
Dale Bishop, Executive Minister for the UCC's Wider Church Ministries, says that many in the church would not join the scholars in conferring special salvation status upon Jews in God's economy. Nor would many consent to tenet nine in the statement: "We affirm the importance of the land of Israel for the life of the Jewish people."
"We recognize it to be a part of their tradition," Bishop says, "but that doesn't mean we incorporate it into our theology or belief system."
The Rev. Martin Duffy, son of a Jewish mother and now a retired evangelical UCC pastor in Easton, Pa., agrees that Christians shouldn't target Jews for conversion, because such "pressure" has caused undue harm through history. But he refused to join scholars in asserting that "Jews are in a saving covenant with God."
"Everyone has to be spiritually reborn to enter the kingdom, and that's not something you get from your genes or your blood," Duffy said. "At some point, you have to make a personal decision for Christ ... That's what Jesus taught, and he was a good Jew. He's my rabbi."
September's statement advanced prior, more parochial efforts as this time thinkers from six denominations—Lutheran, Episcopal, Southern Baptist, United Methodist, Disciples of Christ and Roman Catholic—joined the cause of questioning the doctrine of salvation by faith in Christ alone.
Although Jews heralded the statement as a step forward for interfaith dialogue, evangelicals outside the UCC bristled at the apparent undercutting of a bedrock teaching.
"While that covenant [between God and Jews] is still in place, it in no way implies salvation," says James Sibley, Coordinator of Jewish Ministries for the Southern Baptist Convention. "If it did, why would God send his son to die this horrible death if it were not necessary?"
"Evangelical Christians cannot assent to a diminished universal significance of Jesus as both a Jewish and Gentile Messiah and Savior," says Gordon R. Lewis, Professor of Theology and Philosophy at Denver Seminary. "The Jews were the ones who needed the atonement [because] there aren't any, Jew or Gentile, who live faithfully by the law. The law is fulfilled only in Christ, and only through the atonement can we who cannot keep the law be saved."
For centuries, Christians taught that God's covenant with the chosen, Jewish people had been replaced by a new covenant with the church, i.e., with all who believe Jesus Christ is Son of God, Savior and Lord. Such an idea of one covenant "superceding" the other has faded from both Catholic and mainline Protestant teachings as Christians since the Holocaust have striven to argue that God has not abandoned the Jews. The recent statement unfolds that shift's potentially vast implications for Christian teachings on salvation.
In applauding the statement, two Jewish respondents focus on one of the 10 points: "Christians should not target Jews for conversion."
Renouncing conversion efforts "is absolutely critical to the Jewish stance" in interfaith dialogue with Christians, says Rabbi Ruth Langer of Boston College. "It is virtually impossible to dialogue with somebody who seeks to annihilate who you are."
"All areas of relations between Jews and Christians were in effect poisoned by that doctrine of supercessionism," says Rabbi Gilbert Rosenthal, Executive Director of the National Council of Synagogues. By contrast, this statement, "I think is very heartening to Jewish people and for relations between the two communities."
Other points in the statement further explored implications of affirming a valid covenant between God and Jews.
Scholars said, for instance, "We affirm the importance of the land of Israel for the life of the Jewish people," noting that land has never been key to a Christ-based covenant with God.
Signatories went on to say that "both Israelis and Palestinians have the right to live in peace and security in a homeland of their own."
The purpose of the Aug. 12 statement is to stimulate conversation at local churches and seminaries, both nationwide and abroad. According to Mary Boys, Professor of Practical Theology at UCC-related Union Theological Seminary in New York City, the statement could spark long overdue conversations about what it means to be saved.
"The worst thing would be if this fell with a great thud and was never heard from again," says Boys. "I hope it doesn't go the way of one more boring religious thing."
"This is just the tip of a very huge iceberg," says Eugene Fisher, Associate Director of Ecumenical and Inter-religious Affairs for the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. "God chose the Jews to be God's people. We should respect God's choice and try to figure it out."
|The 10 points of 'A Sacred Obligation'
1. God's covenant with the Jewish people endures forever.
2. Jesus of Nazareth lived and died as a faithful Jew.
3. Ancient rivalries must not define Christian-Jewish relations today.
4. Judaism is a living faith, enriched by many centuries of development.
5. The Bible both connects and separates Jews and Christians.
6. Affirming God's enduring covenant with the Jewish people has consequences for Christian understandings of salvation.
7. Christians should not target Jews for conversion.
8. Christian worship that teaches contempt for Judaism dishonors God.
9. We affirm the importance of the land of Israel for the life of the Jewish people.
10. Christians should work with Jews for the healing of the world.
To read the statement in full, go to www.bc.edu/cjlearning.
The Rev. G. Jeffrey MacDonald, pastor of Union Congregational UCC in Amesbury, Mass., just received the $3,500 first place Templeton Award for Religion Reporter of the Year
The United Church of Christ was a minority of one 30 years ago when the Rev. William R. Johnson became the first openly gay man ordained to Christian ministry.
The ordination was controversial. Critics wondered if the UCC was taking a risk that endangered its relationship with other churches. Some feared the church would be drummed out of the ecumenical movement if it continued to ordain gays and lesbians.
But that never happened. Instead, a number of Protestant, Anglican and Old Catholic churches have moved in the same direction, including nine of the UCC's partners in the World Alliance of Reformed churches.
The trend started with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Netherlands, which decided soon after Johnson's ordination that lesbians and gays could serve openly as pastors. Since then, the practice has spread to 25 other churches—among them the oldest Protestant churches in Europe.
Sexual orientation is no longer a barrier to ordination in the Evangelical Church of the Union (EKU), the German ancestor of the UCC's Evangelical tradition. Its territory includes the capital city of the Protestant Reformation—Luther's Wittenberg. Homosexuals also can be ordained in the Reformed churches of Germany and Switzerland, the forebears of the UCC's Reformed tradition. The city once known as the "Reformed Rome"—John Calvin's Geneva—is no longer hostile territory for lesbians and gays called to Christian ministry.
Most of the historic Lutheran and Reformed churches in Germany and northern Europe now welcome homosexuals into ordained ministry.
Europe heads the list with 19 churches where homosexuals can be legally ordained. But several denominations in Africa, North America and the Pacific are also joining the trend, including the Anglican church in South Africa formerly led by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the United Church of Canada, the Episcopal Church in the U.S. and the Uniting Church in Australia.
Besides these Protestant and Anglican churches, at least three of Europe's "Old Catholic" churches permit the ordination of gays and lesbians. These are churches in the Roman Catholic tradition that broke with the Vatican in the 19th century.
Many churches have adopted uniform policies that expressly permit homosexuals to serve as priests or ministers. In others, the policy is either neutral or implicit, leaving the decision to a regional or local authority.
Practices are not consistent from church to church, but in all of them church leaders have either ordained openly homosexual candidates for ministry or signaled their willingness to do so.
The issue deeply divides some of the churches where lesbians and gays have been ordained. Open conflict has broken out in the Anglican Communion. The church's international conference of bishops in 1998 rejected "homosexual practice" as "incompatible with Scripture," but defeated a resolution condemning bishops who "knowingly ordain" gays and lesbians. Some Anglican bishops in Asia and Africa, despairing at the trend towards greater acceptance of homosexuals in the Episcopal Church, have threatened to break relations with U.S. bishops. Other churches have lost members and even entire congregations who feel they cannot coexist with openly gay clergy.
But in most churches, the trend is to recognize a diversity of practice—to "agree to disagree." In these churches there is continued debate, but homosexuality is no longer considered a church-dividing issue.
Many Protestant churches are still sorting out unresolved issues, with the result that policies are sometimes ambiguous or contradictory. Celibacy, for example, is generally not required by those German churches that ordain homosexuals, but some forbid gay pastors to live with their life partners in parish housing. That policy, critics say, has the unintended effect of splitting monogamous couples from each other, and sends mixed messages to the gay community about the church's commitment to lifelong fidelity as the ideal for human relationships. While the trend is towards inclusion of lesbians and gays in the ordained ministry, acceptance of homosexual pastors in Germany is often a quiet affair, not a confident proclamation that a consensus exists on the morality of same-gender relationships.
The 26 churches have a total membership of nearly 57 million.
Andy Lang is managing editor of the United Church of Christ website.
|Churches where homosexuals can legally be ordained
Anglican: Church of the Province of Southern Africa*, Episcopal Church (USA)*, Scottish Episcopal Church*; Baptist: Alliance of Baptists (USA)*; Christian: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)*; Lutheran: Church of Denmark*, Church of Norway, Church of Sweden*, Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession (Austria), Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland*, Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Germany*; Old Catholic: Old Catholic Church of Austria, Old Catholic Church in the Netherlands*, Old Catholic Diocese of Germany*; Reformed and United: Evangelical Church of the Helvetic Confession (Austria), Evangelical Church of the Union (Germany)*, Evangelical Reformed Church (Germany)*, Evangelical Reformed Churches of Switzerland*, Evangelical Waldensian Church (Italy)*, Netherlands Reformed Church, Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, Remonstrant Brotherhood (Netherlands), Uniting Church in Australia*, United Church of Canada, United Church of Christ (USA)*, United Protestant Church of Belgium*
* These churches have no explicit churchwide policy permitting or prohibiting ordination of gays and lesbians. The decision is left to regional or local bodies, some of which are willing to ordain homosexual candidates. In some churches this amounts to a churchwide practice, since no ordaining bodies discriminate against homosexual candidates for ministry.
In Germany, a majority of Lutheran, United and Reformed Landeskirchen (regional churches) permit the ordination of homosexuals without requiring celibacy. In the United Protestant Church in Belgium, homosexuals generally can be ordained in Dutch, but not in French, congregations. The General Synod of the Church of Norway, voted in 1997 to oppose the ordination of homosexuals living with a partner, but four of the eleven Norwegian bishops have declared that this policy is not binding in their dioceses. The issue is still in dispute. There is no churchwide policy in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, and at least one bishop has declared his willingness to ordain homosexuals. Other Finnish bishops have said they will do so only if the ordinand commits to lifelong celibacy.
June 25 is an historic date. So is June 27. On June 25, 1957, the United Church of Christ came into being, as a union of the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the Congregational Christian Churches. On June 27, 1969, the "Stonewall Rebellion" took place, when, for the first time, gays and lesbians resisted a police raid on a gay bar, the Stonewall Inn in New York City's Greenwich Village, rather than meekly submitting to arrest.
So in 1972, when Bill Johnson was about to make some history of his own as the first "openly avowed homosexual person" in modern times to be ordained to Christian ministry, he selected Sunday, June 25: the UCC's 15th anniversary and the weekend of the third anniversary of the event generally acknowledged as the beginning of the gay liberation movement.
Johnson did not set out to make church history and gay liberation history on the same occasion. He simply wanted to achieve a dream he had had since he was 17, and president of the youth fellowship at First Evangelical and Reformed Church in Houston. He wanted to be a minister.
A theological challenge
Although the Rev. William R. Johnson has never received a call to pastor a local church, today more than 100 openly gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender clergy serve as pastors of UCC congregations in urban, suburban and rural settings. Another 100 serve in other ministries. Within the UCC, the push for recognition and affirmation of homosexual persons came from what is now known as the Coalition for Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender Concerns, which Johnson formed in 1972.
Looking back today, 30 years later, Johnson sees the Coalition as having been founded to make a theological challenge to the church.
"The Coalition challenged the United Church of Christ to honor our baptisms," he says, "to recognize that we all are called into the church by God and welcomed through baptism. Many people don't understand that the affirmation that the Coalition's Open and Affirming Church Program is asking them to give to gay and lesbian people is preceded by God's affirmation through baptism."
Advances since 1972
The Coalition made its first appearance at a General Synod in 1973 in St. Louis, when it made the point that matters of concern to gay and lesbian persons in the UCC should never be discussed without openly gay and lesbian persons in the conversation. By 1981 the Coalition held its first National Gathering (see story on preceding page), in 1983 it introduced the idea of an Open and Affirming Church Program to Synod and in 1985 Synod delegates adopted the program.
Today 410 UCC churches have voted to become Open and Affirming, that is, to welcome and affirm as members and leaders all persons without discrimination because of sexual orientation.
In the mid-'80s UCC Parents of Lesbians and Gays emerged. "This is an invaluable service to parents who are discovering for the first time that they have gay and lesbian children," says Johnson. "It's another extension of the church's ministry generated by the growing knowledge that people have about homosexuality and spirituality." He also is proud of the Coalition's youth and young adult outreach. "This is vitally important," he says, "not only for the saving of lives but for leadership development and for enabling young people to integrate their spirituality and their sexuality into a meaningful whole."
More to be done
Since 1988 Johnson has served on the UCC's national staff, most of that time dealing with issues of education and advocacy about human sexuality and AIDS. This year, he became Executive Associate in the Office of the Executive Minister of Wider Church Ministries.
Despite the advances in understanding among UCC members since his historic ordination 30 years ago, Johnson still sees much work to be done. "We have to help people understand more about bisexuality and overcome the prejudices that we have about that," he says, "and about transgender persons, who bring significant gifts to the church."
"The future also has to involve the church's advocacy for and commitment to equal marital rights for same-gender couples," he says. "Surviving partners from legally married victims of 9/11 are getting at least $1.6 million. The surviving partners of gay and lesbian persons, no less grief stricken, will be lucky to get $10,000." He also points to the issue of protecting the rights of children of same-gender couples.
"The struggle in the church is not about opening minds but about opening hearts," he says. "The only way hearts really open is through personal interaction. And the only way personal interaction can happen is if people are willing to place themselves in relationship with someone who is different from themselves."
"What I ache for in the church," he says, "is for all people to be able to share the truth of their lives with some depth and some sense of safety. Because then we move into authentic Christian community, where everyone is valued and the love of God is expressed in and through our lives and mission together."
To some, they're the answer to a thirsty congregation's prayers. To others, they too often turn out to be self-serving opportunists who lead their flocks into a hostile wilderness. They are pastors, ordained in other denominations, who accept calls to lead local congregations of the United Church of Christ.
But some of them also might be key players in a seemingly never-ending drain of members out of the denomination, which, like all of the other mainline denominations, has suffered losses every year for nearly 30 years.
Theories stem from new UCC data on the 172 congregations (about 2.5 percent of the total) that have left the UCC since 1996. A surprising 79 percent of these churches were led by non-UCC pastors or reported no pastor at all. Only one in five (21 percent) had a UCC-ordained pastor at the time. More than one in three (35 percent) had a pastor ordained in another denomination. The rest (44 percent) had "no reported leadership," meaning they either had no pastor at the time or already had such loose ties to the UCC that they filed no information.
Go slow with data
Attempting to make sense of this "non-UCC pastor factor" can lead to some thorny terrain. For decades the UCC has championed ecumenical projects to share ordained ministries among various denominations. To suggest that non-UCC pastors have become a "foreigner-in-our-ranks" problem or an unwelcome group could cut against the church's long-term vision for ecumenism.
Wary of implications, researchers urge caution when interpreting the data.
"We can't say there's a causal relationship between calling a non-UCC pastor and church withdrawal" from the denomination, says Sheila Kelly, Minister for Research Information and Services in the UCC national office. "It could very well work the other way, with churches unhappy with the denomination intentionally calling non-UCC pastors as one step in distancing themselves from the UCC."
Two schools of thought
As data beg explanation, two schools of analytical thought emerge within the UCC.
The first says congregations must beware of a breed of charismatic pastors who have entrepreneurial designs to make local churches independent of the denomination. The second says non-UCC pastors have merely become fall guys for a denomination that makes life difficult for evangelical pastors and thereby alienates evangelically-minded congregations.
In 1999, First Congregational UCC of West Brookfield, Mass., called Assembly of God pastor the Rev. Harry Staiti to lead them. Staiti got the job, according to interim pastor the Rev. Patricia Glore, because "they were so anxious to get somebody in place." But although the church didn't end up leaving the denomination, she says Staiti seemed to have such a departure in mind.
"I think he thought he had an opportunity to lead them out [of the UCC] and they would follow anywhere he would lead them," says Glore. "They forgot who they were for a while, no doubt about it."
But Staiti tells a different story—one of being shunned by the local UCC.
"I accepted after nine months that we were on our own here," Staiti says. "I had seen the UCC as a place that celebrates diversity and everyone can be included. But I got the impression that evangelicals are not included." Nevertheless, he adds, "I had no intention of taking the congregation out of the UCC."
During his one year there, Staiti says, average worship attendance swelled from 30 to 175. Yet the old guard of the church bristled at his style, which, he says, included asking worshipers to open their Bibles during sermons and asserting that salvation comes only through faith in Jesus Christ.
In February 2000, he says, a disgruntled faction voted him out. He now pastors a storefront church, wedged between a deli and a Chinese restaurant in an East Brookfield strip mall.
Feeling unwelcome is sadly common for non-UCC evangelical pastors serving UCC churches, according to the Rev. David Runnion-Bareford, Executive Director of the Biblical Witness Fellowship. His organization has requests from 40 to 60 UCC congregations seeking evangelical pastors at any given time, he says, and must often look beyond what he sees as a liberal-heavy pool of UCC candidates to satisfy demand.
"Once they become more accepted, they'll become more loyal," Runnion-Bareford says, referring to non-UCC, evangelical pastors. Meanwhile, he says, "we need to re-examine our denomination's commitment to diversity and whether it would be willing to embrace more evangelical viewpoints."
Already on slippery slope
One such church seeking an evangelical pastor was First Congregational UCC in Clinton, Mass.The church already had stopped sending delegates to denominational meetings when the Rev. Grif Vautier, a Presbyterian, became pastor more than eight years ago.
When the congregation voted this fall to withdraw, it cited as final straws the denomination's liberal interpretations of scripture and its scholarship fund for gay and lesbian persons to attend seminary.
"We didn't feel we could stand behind the [UCC] organization," said Jill Wong, co-chair of the search committee to replace Vautier. "The decision to leave the UCC was a membership decision and was not influenced by the ministers at all."
Others suspect pastors might sometimes have a lot of influence and must be aware of it—especially in an age when shared leadership across denominations is coupled with diminishing denominational identity.
"We in the UCC say we pastors have only one vote," says the Rev. Patricia Smith, moderator of the Massachusetts Central Association that saw two of its congregations leave the UCC in autumn 2001. "That's silly. We have a lot of influence. My congregation is coming along now to embrace the UCC, and I know it's because of my influence."
Clear pattern confirmed
Ron Buford, UCC Public Relations and Marketing Manager, agrees with Smith. Buford often handles calls from members whose congregations are in the process of leaving the UCC.
"This new data confirms a clear pattern I see among those callers," says Buford. "Here's the typical profile: The church calls a pastor who has never embraced UCC values; long-standing UCC members get alienated—they stop coming and some leave; a new congregation emerges as new people come and the balance shifts; people call me, desperately trying to hold on to their congregation, but it's too late."
Buford continues, "We have many great non-UCC pastors. However, church and ministry committees must identify those who do not come in good faith. These entrepreneurial types, less common among mainline clergy, come instead with an eye toward doing something they never could have done in the denomination they left—take a church out of the denomination, building, endowment and all."
Denominational ties crucial
Lack of commitment to one another ensures some pastors and congregations remain on the denomination's fringe, according to Ohio Conference Minister the Rev. Ralph Quellhorst. He says 40 Ohio congregations have left the UCC in the last 10 years. In his estimation, 90 percent of the congregations that fled the UCC had non-UCC pastors at the time.
"The pastor says, 'You don't have to stay in the UCC,'" Quellhorst says. "The pastor doesn't work to help them learn more about the UCC." Meanwhile, he says, UCC pastors too often regard their evangelical, non-UCC pastors as "second-class citizens" who "don't feel they're allowed very far into the fellowship."
"When you had a strong denominational loyalty, you could work it out," Quellhorst says, adding that those days are gone.
One facet of that UCC identity and loyalty is a prophetic vision, according to Buford, which comes, he says,when God reveals a new way to see an old situation.
"The new growth data suggests that the people will embrace a prophetic vision when strong and committed pastors boldly proclaim it," he says. "Prophetic vision is often unpopular. If the pastor does not believe it, the people will be cast adrift."
In the end, the correlation between non-UCC pastors and congregational departures might point to two or more solutions.
The BWF's Runnion-Bareford says the onus is on the denomination as a whole to "examine whether it values diversity or conformity" in a time when clergy shortages require creative solutions.
The Rev. Richard Sparrow, Search and Call Coordinator in the UCC's Parish Life and Leadership Ministry, disagrees. "The onus is on churches," he says, to know their history of commitment to "outreach, ecumenism and justice" through the United Church of Christ and therefore retain close covenantal ties.
"The issue is not just non-UCC pastors," he says. "Too often churches' ties are already loosening and they're on a slippery slope. Then they are vulnerable to a charismatic type pastor, who might already be in trouble with his or her own denomination."
One thing seems clear: if the pastor strongly identifies with the denomination, then the congregation probably will, too. What's not so clear is which comes first.
The Rev. G. Jeffrey MacDonald is pastor of Union Congregational UCC in Amesbury, Mass., and a free-lance journalist, regularly contributing to Religion News Service.
Four students were wounded and another killed during a shooting on the campus of UCC-related Catawba College in Salisbury, N.C. Darris Morris, a senior from Batesburg, S.C., was killed following an altercation with students from nearby Livingstone College. Six Livingstone students have been charged in connection with the shooting.
In the aftermath of the shooting, the Rev. Ken Clapp, chaplain and senior vice president of Catawba College, has been working nonstop offering pastoral guidance.
"I have been caught in the blur of counseling and helping our grieving students," says Clapp, "so much so that I haven't had the time to grieve and process the shooting for myself. As with anyone, it's just so hurtful and so disappointing."
An altercation at a party on the Catawba College campus escalated as it moved outside near the gymnasium. Livingstone students were seen going to a vehicle on the street nearby. Reportedly, at least one of the students pulled out a handgun and began firing. Catawba College security exchanged gunfire with the students, with one of the assailants sustaining a superficial wound to the head.
"Students from rival schools routinely rile each other," says Clapp. "I just never expected something like this. I think kids see so much violence, and the people that get shot on TV [shows] get back up. I think this will make them realize that there are consequences. This young man didn't get back up
Charles Shelby Rooks reading names of persons who had died from AIDS. The reading took place in October 1989 at a Washington, D.C., display of the Names Project AIDS Memorial Quilt. Bill Johnson photo.
The Rev. Charles Shelby Rooks, an influential leader in the United Church of Christ and in the African-American religious community, died Saturday, May 19, 2001, at Sentara General Hospital in Norfolk, Va., from complications following heart surgery. He was 76.
A memorial service will be held July 28 at 2 p.m. in the Amistad Chapel of the United Church of Christ's Church House in Cleveland. In lieu of flowers, the Rooks family has asked that donations be made to the Rooks Scholarship Fund, UCC Local Church Ministries, 700 Prospect Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44115-1100.
Headed Homeland Board
Rooks had a long career as pastor, scholar and administrator. He was executive vice president of the United Church Board for Homeland Ministries from 1984 until his retirement in 1992.
As president of Chicago Theological Seminary from 1974 to 1984, he was the first African American to lead a predominantly white theological school.
Earlier, he had headed the Fund for Theological Education, Princeton, N.J., and had been pastor of Lincoln Memorial Temple UCC in Washington, D.C.
"Shelby's commitment to theological education and the public responsibility of the church will be an enduring legacy for a church seeking leaders sensitive to the Gospel's demands of justice," says the Rev. John H. Thomas, General Minister and President of the United Church of Christ.
As the Board for Homeland Ministries' chief executive officer ? based in New York City until 1989, and from 1990 on in Cleveland ? Rooks oversaw programs involving outlays of $20 million a year in health and welfare, higher education, evangelism and church extension, Christian education, publication and social justice ministries.
Major black religious leader Rooks strengthened the UCC's educational ministries and supported a strong AIDS ministry as well as ministries for the homeless and for community action. Throughout his career, he advocated the training of African-American church leaders. He was founding president of the Society for the Study of Black Religion and served for 14 years with the Fund for Theological Education in Princeton.
For African Americans, Rooks said, "The truth is this: only religion provides the consistent meaning and value that enables oppressed people not only to survive, but to overcome their problems and difficulties."
Author Henry J. Young lists Rooks as one of 14 major black religious leaders since 1949 along with the likes of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X.
Rooks himself was a frequent writer and lecturer. His articles appeared in more than 30 journals. He wrote three books: "Revolution in Zion: Reshaping African-American Ministry" (New York City: The Pilgrim Press, 1989); "The Hopeful Spirit" (New York City: The Pilgrim Press, 1987), and "Rainbows and Reality" (Atlanta: The ITC Press, 1985).
Beyond the Homeland Board, Rooks had a long record of service to denominational and ecumenical boards and councils. For many years, he chaired the board of directors of the UCC's Office of Communication, helping to shape a program to combat discrimination in broadcasting.
He also chaired the seminary section of the denomination's Council on Higher Education and served the National Council of Churches on the boards of its Department of Ministry, Division of Church and Society, and Commission for Higher Education.
Rooks was born Oct. 19, 1924, in Beaufort, N.C. His family's roots in the UCC tradition extend as far back as 1879, when his great-great granduncle, Michael P. Jenkins, organized a Congregational church in Beaufort. He subsequently lived in Harlem and Brooklyn, N.Y., and in Norfolk, Va., where he graduated from Booker T. Washington High School.
Following military service, Rooks earned a B.A. degree from Virginia State University in 1949 and an M. Div. degree in 1953 from Union Theological Seminary in New York. He did additional graduate study at Columbia University Teachers College in New York, England's Mansfield College of Oxford University, The North American College in Rome, Italy, and the Episcopal Theological Seminary of the Southwest in Austin, Texas. He held honorary degrees from nine institutions.
Rooks is survived by his wife of nine months, the former Elaine Hunter Young; sons Laurence G. Rooks of Gilbert, Ariz., and William P. Evers of Mequon, Wis.; stepson Dr. James E. Young of Perrysburg, Ohio, and seven grandchildren. He was preceded in death by his wife of almost 53 years, the former Adrienne Martinez of New Orleans, and his daughter, Carol.
Cards should be sent to Elaine Rooks at 1065 Grand Oak Lane, Virginia Beach, VA 23455.
Hans Holznagel is assistant to the UCC Collegium for community life.
In 1975, South Congregational UCC in Grand Rapids, Mich., had 1,000 members, 300 in church school, and about 400 people in two services every Sunday in a beautiful, well-maintained building.
Today, we have the same building but in very shabby shape; 180 members, more than half over age 75; 12 kids in our church school, and debts in excess of $150,000. We will be closing this summer.
Three core problems
How did we get to this place? There were three core problems: an unwillingness to engage with our neighborhood; an inability to disagree without fighting; unrealistic long-term financial planning.
*We probably took the first step to being in this place more than 25-30 years ago, when we ignored the cultural and demographic changes going on in our neighborhood. Then it was changing from being 100 percent white and middle-class to what is now a diverse middle-class mix of whites, blacks and Hispanics in a neighborhood that borders some of the poorest parts of Grand Rapids.
*We fought, between ourselves and with our pastors. With every fight, good people left our church and our will to serve diminished.
*Our financial planning was short-sighted. We never built an adequate endowment. We used scarce capital campaign funds to hire a full-time Christian education person. Disastrous problems with heating and roofing left us with a mortgage and, while the capital campaign paid the monthly payments, we faced a $125,000 balloon payment and could see no way to raise the funds.
The emergency problems and the associate's salary used up the funds that should have been spent on renovating the building, launching local hands-on mission, and paying for advertising in the neighborhood.
Doing everything right
When I was caled here 19 months ago, the church appeared full of energy and ready to re-establish itself in its present location. The search committee believed it; the Area Minister believed it; I saw no reason to doubt it. Looking back now, we didn't know how many people were planning to leave. We couldn't admit the effects of our problems with fighting, with money, or with mission.
As I examined our life, I realized that we were doing everything church consultant Lyle Schaller ever suggested to welcome people on Sunday morning. We had good worship, excellent music, well-presented bulletins, friendly people at the door.
But our mission commitment was abysmal. We gave money, generously, but very few of our people were involved in hands-on outreach. We did not use our building as a mission resource for our neighborhood. I began to fear that there simply was no energy at South to build a future.
Once I understood our financial position, I supported the trustees in their decision to sell the building, probably to the independent, charismatic, conservative African-American congregation that has been renting from us for over a year. They will be doing something very different than we would have done, but their ministry is needed in our neighborhood.
This year, I tried out the idea of using the proceeds from the sale of our building to start a new church under the Association's sponsorship. People immediately got excited; they wanted us to continue, but they knew they could not do the work. We are still developing the details, but it looks quite positive right now.
What role did I play?
Fortunately, I had time to get to know folks before this blew up. So I offer comfort to the grieving. I help envision a future—by encouraging the formation of ties with their "next" church, by forming a vision of a new church start, and by helping them understand what healthy, faithful churches and church members do. As we prepare to close, we are co-sponsoring a Habitat house here in Grand Rapids.
Finally, I keep proclaiming the Gospel. There is a word of comfort for our situation and a word of challenge for our future. I keep trying to put everything in a Gospel context and our people have been pretty explicit in saying how helpful that is.
The Rev. Virginia Child, pastor at South Congregational UCC in Grand Rapids, Mich., is seeking a new call.
I have been having an e-mail exchange with a friend in another Conference, who is a few years into ministry in his first church. The congregation has just done a pastoral "evaluation" and he doesn't know what to do with some of the responses. They are anonymous and some of the comments, to him, seem to come out of the blue.
One of the most common calls to a Conference office has to do with clergy evaluations. I have been giving the whole issue some thought. Let me share some of those thoughts with you.
Ministry is a dialogue between a pastor and congregation or, in the case of non-parish ministry, the setting for ministry. To evaluate only one part of that dialogue is always going to be insufficient.
There is a need for regular constructive criticism of both clergy and the ministry setting.
When evaluations are focused only on the pastor, or done very irregularly, they too often become tools of destructive criticism cloaked in anonymity. People who are happy are not as likely to respond as people who have "issues" with the pastor.
Pastors cannot be evaluated as "employees" and that is very difficult for congregations to understand.
Every congregation has basic expectations of its pastor. Some of these expectations can be evaluated with precision. Is there an expectation of regular office hours? Do services start on time, or is the pastor always late? Is the pastor available, with some regularity, to parishioners?
Some expectations are very subjective. No one can please everyone. Many people will like sermons that others do not appreciate. Some people want pastoral visits and others do not. Pastors can only visit in the hospital if they are told that people are there. No single instrument can give the kind of helpful feedback that would come from regular and open conversation with the clergy.
People may be drawn to a ministry by a pastor's reputation or presence in the community. People choose to stay and become part of a ministry only if the congregation is a welcoming and comfortable space that provides an opportunity for them or their children to find a place. Yet, if congregations do not grow numerically, the blame is most often directed towards the pastor.
A coach cannot win games or score points if the team refuses to leave the bench or expects the same one or two people to play all the positions. It isn't fair then to blame the coach for an ineffective team.
It is important for clergy to do some regular reflective and honest self-evaluation. This is one of the reasons that clergy clusters and ecumenical clergy support groups are important.
While there are some, I know very few pastors who are still in effective and healthy ministries after having been in the same place for more than 15 years.
It is just as essential that congregations or ministry settings evaluate their life and organization as it is that they evaluate their pastor.
Spiritual health is as important for pastors as it is for congregations. It is hard for pastors to maintain spiritual health when destructive dynamics are in place.
Years ago a research team under the leadership of Kenneth Underwood did an evaluation of campus ministries. The report of this committee reflected that an effective ministry functioned well when there was a balance of four areas, pastoral, priestly, prophetic and governance. I have found that to be a helpful way to look at and evaluate the broad scope of ministry.
Is there pastoral work being done with regularity? Is the priestly role being fulfilled by presiding at funerals, weddings, baptisms, communion and public events calling for the presence of clergy? Is this a ministry that addresses the issues of life and the world in prophetic fashion? The prophets of the Old Testament took the issues of the world and lifted them to God in prayer and study of the scripture and then reflected to the people regarding justice, faithfulness and truth. Finally, governance. Does the ministry provide attention to the basic administrative details of the ministry and the institution?
An unevaluated ministry, of an individual or a congregation, easily becomes lopsided after a while. Congregations become spiritually drained when they spend most of their energy on governance issues and committee meetings.
Pastors who are deeply committed to prophetic issues often overlook pastoral presence or governance responsibilities. Pastors who spend all their time in pastoral care often neglect the issues around them that require a prophetic response.
Evaluation of clergy and ministry settings should be based on the common understanding that our call is to be faithful to the teachings of Jesus Christ and the presence of the Holy Spirit. To be effective, an evaluation must be done with openness and honesty and involve the desire for constructive and faithful growth of all parties involved.
The Rev. Lynne M. Simcox is Interim Conference Minister of the UCC's Rocky Mountain Conference and former chair of the Council of Conference Ministers Cabinet.
The UCC's Parish Life and Leadership team in Local Church Ministries is currently evaluating documents produced for clergy evaluation, in preparation for updating them and simplifying them for use in local churches. To join the discussion on this issue click here.
When the latest UCC Statistical Handbook arrived, there were no surprises. Consistent with mainline denominational trends, UCC membership continues to decline. While there are a few hopeful signs, it takes the guidance of experts such as Kirk Hadaway and Sheila Kelly in UCC Research Services to find them.
In 1999 membership declined by 19,406 members (1.37 percent). We lost 77 congregations, 41 of which withdrew from the UCC (6,387 members). We also added 21 congregations (nine new church starts, six pre-existing congregations joined and six former UCC churches were reinstated.)
New church starts are especially encouraging since 39.5 percent of the newer churches grew more than 10 percent. A look at membership growth within UCC congregations as a whole shows that while 15.9 percent are growing, 32 percent are declining and 52.1 percent show no change.
Taken together, these figures show that the greatest opportunities for growth lie in starting new churches and energizing the majority of churches that show no change.
"Mainstream denominations are affected by the culture and demographics, but all the evidence suggests that they would be declining less if they put more emphasis on outreach and new church development," say Hadaway and his colleague, David Roozen, in their book, "Rerouting the Protestant Mainstream."
What about evangelism?
Evangelism has been a dirty word in mainline line circles since the 1950s. In fact, according to one pastor, even in the 1990s our anti-evangelism bias was so strong that a campaign emerged with buttons that said, "Evangelism is not a dirty word."
"[Church] attendance was steered by heritage, habit, and social status," says the noted business guru, Peter Drucker. Gallup polls in the 1950s showed that 49 percent of the U.S. population said they had attended a church or synagogue within the last seven days. The failure to value evangelism is a holdover from the 1950s, when church attendance was downright fashionable.
According to "Rerouting the Protestant Mainstream," large numbers of baby-boomers on church rolls stopped going to church around college age—but failed to return later. The pattern had been that young adults returned with their children. This would have helped stem mainline church membership decline.
Failure to adapt
Instead, boomers became religious consumers, which includes the choice of not going to church and getting religious meaning elsewhere.
"The fading of Christian or other religious tradition as a constraint and guide for choice means that individuals are increasingly on their own in developing what we call a lifestyle," says Hadaway.
A famous Harvard Business Review article showed that the railroad went out of business for one reason: It saw itself in the railroad business instead of the transportation business. Had railroads decided to build networks that included other modes of transportation such as trucks, buses, and airplanes, they would have grown beyond belief. While railroads remained stuck in old ways of doing business, changes all around them moved them into obsolescence.
Similarly, according to Hadaway and Roozen, "a sizable proportion of church members in mainstream denominations don't care whether their churches grow or not...they are uncomfortable with evangelism and they like their church the way it is."
Growing UCC churches are different. Hadaway has analyzed the data and presents some surprising and hopeful correlates for church growth. Churches having one or more of the following qualities are more likely to grow:
Liberal or progressive members,
Use of strings and woodwind instruments in worship,
Use of contemporary music,
Social justice work,
High proportion of new members,
Members who are excited about their church's future,
Congregation that is spiritually vital and alive,
Exciting worship services,
Lack of conflict.
There are 10 UCC churches and three Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) congregations among writer-professor Paul Wilkes' recently released list of "The Best Christian Churches." (click here for article.) "It's not a matter of location, and it's not a matter of denomination or lack of it," says Wilkes. "These churches have found out that doing church like they've always done doesn't always work...Churches need to take risks, to be open to change, to make mistakes and bounce back."
These are not the only churches within the UCC taking risks and doing great things. There are others. Wilkes' list, for example, does not include any congregations from our Evangelical and Reformed tradition, says the Rev. John H. Thomas, UCC General Minister and President. "Churches like Old First Reformed in Philadelphia belong on this list as well," he says.
Ron Buford, the UCC's public relations and marketing manager, takes a keen interest in statistics.
Please send copies of brochures, ads, welcoming programs, or other materials that have worked especially well in your local setting to Ron Buford, UCC PIC, 700 Prospect Ave., Cleveland OH 44115-1100.