Palm/Passion Sunday Service
From Palms to Passion:
The Story of Jesus’ Last Days in Jerusalem
from Matthew’s Gospel
April 5, 2020
The story of Jesus’ triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and then of his passion — betrayal, arrest, torture and interrogation, and crucifixion as a criminal — form an essential part of the Christian story. Each of the gospel writers told that story with particular aims and individual messages. Yet for many worshipers, it is rare to hear the story in its entirety. This document is a script that presents the entire narrative. It expands on the traditional narratives of the Entry into Jerusalem, by continuing to recount Jesus’ cleansing of the Temple; it begins the Passion Narrative somewhat earlier than usual, with the Anointing at Bethany, and concludes after the burial with the posting of the guard at the tomb. These additions help to highlight Jesus’ ministry as a threat to religious authorities and the state, rather than focus on individual betrayals (although there is plenty of that!) Take and adapt as needed!
The worship script is designed to be delivered by three readers. Rather than assigning parts the three read lines in succession (with some alterations for dramatic effect). Each reader thus plays many roles, and the voices of narrator, Jesus, Peter, and so on, are shared. When any group speaks, whether a crowd of onlookers or the disciples, the congregation reads. Verses of hymns punctuate the story, providing a change of pace and delivering the message in a different mode.
The translation of scripture used below is from The Inclusive Bible: The First Egalitarian Translation, translated by Priests for Equality, Copyright © 2009 Quixote Center. Reprinted by permission of the Quixote Center.
Congregations may wish to use the script in three ways. In the first, you may print the entire script in the bulletin, which sometimes has the disadvantages of requiring much paper and leading people to read more than listen — but could also raise the level of attention to the story. In the second, you may print only the congregational responses, with “lead-in” phrases, and the speaker could cue worshipers to speak their lines together. In the third, you may project the congregational responses, as well as hymn verses, on a large screen.
In this service, Palms are used in a slightly different way: after the parade early on, they are dropped on the floor to absorb the wear and tear of the rest of the service, and by extension, the betrayals, the shocks and the pain of the story. When they are collected at the end they will have lost their triumphant sheen. For palms grown in sustainable conditions, check out Eco-Palms: https://ecopalms.org/
Words of Welcome
Call to Worship
One: Lent began in the wilderness; it concludes in Jerusalem.
All: We now come near to the end of one story. Another will soon
We have followed Jesus this far;
today we remember how he faced betrayal, falseness,
rejection, and torment.
And we witness, once more, that he taught and walked in love
through every step of the journey.
Matthew 21: 1-17
Jesus Enters Jerusalem and the Temple
Narrator (Reader 1) As they approached Jerusalem, entering Beth-Phage at the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent off two disciples 2with the instructions,
Jesus (Reader 2) “Go into the village straight ahead of you, and immediately you will find a tethered donkey with her colt standing beside her. Untie them and lead them back to me. 3 If anyone questions you, say, ‘The Rabbi needs them.’ Then they will let them go at once.”
Narrator (Reader 3) 4This came about to fulfill what was said through the prophet: 5“Tell the daughter of Zion, ‘Your Sovereign comes to you without display, riding on a donkey, on a colt— the foal of a beast of burden.’ ” 6So the disciples went off and did what Jesus had ordered. 7They brought the donkey and her colt, and after they laid their cloaks on the animals, Jesus mounted and rode toward the city.
The Procession of Palms
Narrator (reader 1) 8Great crowds of people spread their cloaks on the road, while some began to cut branches from the trees and lay them along the path. 9The crowds—those who went in front of Jesus and those who followed—were all shouting
Crowd (Children) “Hosanna to the Heir to the House of David! Blessed is the One who comes in the name of the Most High! Hosanna in the highest!”
Narrator (Reader 2) 10As Jesus entered Jerusalem, the whole city was stirred to its depths, demanding, “Who is this?” 11And the crowd kept answering,
Crowd (Congregation) “This is the prophet Jesus, from Nazareth in Galilee!”
Children and others in the congregation may parade around the sanctuary
singing and waving palms
Hymn Pave the Way with Branches Sing!
Prayer and Praise 132
Jesus is coming. Pave the way with branches.
Jesus is coming. Hosanna!
Chorus: Hosanna. Jesus is coming, Hosanna to the Prince of Peace.
Hosanna. Jesus is coming, Hosanna to the Prince of Peace.
Hope for the downtrod. Pave the way with branches.
Hope for the downtrod. Hosanna!
Land for the landless. Pave the way with branches.
Land for the landless. Hosanna!
Debts are forgiven. Pave the way with branches.
Debts are forgiven. Hosanna!
Release for the captives. Pave the way with branches.
Release for the captives. Hosanna!
Words and music Bret Hesla © 1999. All rights reserved.
Permission given to congregations for one-time use.
At the conclusion of the procession, invite the congregation to throw their palms into the aisles. For the rest of the service, people will tread on the palms.
Jesus in the Temple
Narrator (Reader 3) 12When Jesus entered the Temple, he drove out all those who were selling and buying there. He overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of those selling doves. 13He said to them,
Jesus (Reader 1) “Scripture says, ‘My house is called a house of prayer,’ but you make it a den of thieves!”
Narrator (Reader 2) 14Those who were blind or couldn’t walk came to him in the Temple, and he healed them. 15When the chief priests and teachers of the Law saw the wonderful things Jesus did throughout the Temple area, especially when they heard the children shouting:
Crowd (Children) “Hosanna to the Heir to the House of David!”
Narrator (Reader 3) They asked him: 16“Do you hear what the children are shouting?”
Jesus (Reader 3) “Yes! Have you never read, ‘From the mouths of children and nursing babies, you have brought forth praise’?”
Narrator (Reader 1) 17After leaving them,
Jesus went out to Bethany to spend the night.
Prayers of the People
The Lord’s Prayer
Call for the Offering
All Glory, Laud and Honor verse 3 TNCH 216
As you received their praises, receive our prayers today,
Whose justice and whose mercy and sovereignty hold sway.
All glory laud and honor to you O Christ we sing,
To whom the lips of children made sweet hosannas ring!
Offertory Prayer unison
We cast these gifts before you, O God,
as palms were cast before Jesus long ago.
We lay them on your altar in praise, thanksgiving, and joy.
Receive them back from our hands,
that they may become a greater blessing in your hands.
In Jesus’ name, Amen.
The Passion According to St Matthew
Matthew 26 :1—28 :20
Conspiracy Against Jesus Begins
Narrator (Reader 1) Jesus told the disciples, 2“Passover starts in two days, and the Chosen One will be handed over to be crucified.” 3 Then the chief priests and the elders of the people gathered in the palace of the high priest, Caiaphas. 4They planned to arrest Jesus under some pretext and execute him— 5“But not during the Festival,” they agreed, “or we might have a riot on our hands.”
Anointing At Bethany
Narrator (Reader 2) 6Now when Jesus was in Bethany, at the house of Simon, who had leprosy, 7a woman approached Jesus with an alabaster jar of very expensive ointment. She poured it on his head while he reclined at the table. 8The disciples, witnessing this, were indignant.
Disciples (Adults) “What a waste!” 9“This could have been sold at a high price, and the money given to needier people.”
Jesus (Reader 3) 10Jesus, aware of their concern, said, “Why do you upset the woman? She has done me a good deed. 11You’ll always have poor people with you, but you won’t always have me. 12When she poured the oil on my body,
she was preparing me for burial. 13The truth is, wherever the Good News is proclaimed in the world, she will be remembered for what she has done for me.”
Narrator (Reader 1) 14One of the Twelve, the one named Judas Iscariot, went off to the chief priests 15and said, “What are you willing to give me if I hand Jesus over to you?” They paid him thirty pieces of silver. 16And from that moment he looked for an opportunity to betray Jesus.
The Passover Meal
Narrator (Reader 2) 17On the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the disciples came up to Jesus and said, “Where do you want us to prepare the Passover for you?” 18Jesus told them to go to a certain person in the city and say,
Jesus (Reader 3) “The Teacher says, ‘My appointed time draws near. I am to celebrate the Passover in your house.’”
Narrator (Reader 1) 19The disciples did as Jesus ordered and prepared the Passover supper. 20When it grew dark, he reclined at table with the Twelve. 21And while they were eating he said,
Jesus (Reader 2) “The truth is, one of you is about to betray me.”
Narrator (Reader 3) 22They were greatly distressed and started asking him in turn, “Surely, it is not I, Teacher?” 23Jesus replied,
Jesus (Reader 1) “The one who has dipped his hand into the dish with me is the one who will hand me over. 24The Chosen One will go as the scriptures foretold—but woe to the one by whom the Chosen One is betrayed! It would be better for that one never to have been born at all.”
Narrator (Reader 2) 25Then Judas, who was betraying Jesus, said,
“Surely it is not I, Rabbi?” Jesus answered,
Jesus (Reader 3) “You have said it yourself.”
Possibly incorporate the Lord’s Supper here?
Pastor or presider leads the ritual. As people walk forward to receive communion, they step on the palms.
Suggested Communion Song: Come to the Table of Grace
Sing! Prayer and Praise 112
If no Communion, continue with the reading.
26During the meal Jesus took bread, blessed it, broke it and gave it to the disciples. “Take this and eat it,” Jesus said. “This is my body.” 27Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and gave it to them. “Drink from it, all of you,” he said. 28 “This is my blood, the blood of the Covenant, which will be poured out on behalf of many for the forgiveness of sins. 29The truth is, I will not drink this fruit of the vine again until the day when I drink it anew with you in my Abba’s kindom.”
Hymn Journey to Gethsemane verse 1
Journey to Gethsemane,
Go and feel the tempter’s power;
Your redeemer’s conflict see;
Watch the anguish of this hour;
Do not hide or turn away;
Learn from Jesus how to pray.
Peter Promises Faithfulness
Jesus (Reader 2) 31Jesus then said to them, “Tonight you will all fall away because of me, for scripture says, ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.’ 32But after I have been raised, I will go to Galilee ahead of you.”
Narrator (Reader 3) 33Peter responded, “Though all may fall away because of you, I never will!” 34Jesus replied,
Jesus (Reader 1) “The truth is, before the cock crows tonight, you will deny me three times.”
Narrator (Reader 2) 35Peter said, “Even if I must die with you, I will never disown you.” And all the other disciples said the same.
36Then Jesus went with them to a place called Gethsemane and said to the disciples,
Jesus Prays, and the Disciples Sleep
Jesus (Reader 3) “Stay here while I go over there and pray.”
37Jesus took along Peter, James and John and started to feel grief and anguish. 38Then he said to them,
Jesus (Reader 1) “My soul is deeply grieved, to the point of death. Please, stay here, and stay awake with me.” 39Jesus went on a little further and fell prostrate in prayer: “Abba, if it is possible, let this cup pass me by. But not what
I want—what you want.”
Narrator (Reader 2) 40When Jesus returned to the disciples, he found them asleep. He said to Peter,
Jesus (Reader 3) “Couldn’t you stay awake with me for even an hour?
41Be on guard, and pray that you may not undergo trial. The spirit is willing, but the body is weak.” 42Withdrawing a second time, Jesus prayed, “Abba, if this cup cannot pass me by without my drinking it, your will be done!”
Narrator (Reader 1) 43Once more Jesus returned and found the disciples asleep; they could not keep their eyes open. 44Jesus left them again, withdrew somewhat and prayed for a third time, saying the same words as before. 45Finally Jesus returned to the disciples and said to them,
Jesus (Reader 2) “Are you still sleeping? Still taking your rest? The hour is upon us—the Chosen One is being betrayed into the hands of sinners. 46Get up! Let us be on our way! Look, my betrayer is here.”
Betrayal and Arrest
Narrator (Reader 3) 47While Jesus was still speaking, Judas, one of the Twelve, arrived—accompanied by a great crowd with swords and clubs. They had been sent by the chief priests and elders of the people. 48Judas had arranged to give them a signal. “Whomever I embrace is the one,” he had said; “take hold of him.” 49He immediately went over to Jesus and said, “Shalom, Rabbi!” and embraced him. 50Jesus said to Judas,
Jesus (Reader 1) “Friend, just do what you’re here to do!”
Narrator (Reader 2) At that moment, the crowd surrounded them, laid hands on Jesus and arrested him. 51Suddenly, one of those who accompanied Jesus drew a sword and slashed at the high priest’s attendant, cutting off an ear.
52 Jesus said,
Jesus (Reader 3) “Put your sword back where it belongs. Those who live by the sword die by the sword. 53Don’t you think I can call on my Abba God to provide over twelve legions of angels at a moment’s notice? 54But then how would the scriptures be fulfilled, which say it must happen this way?” Am I a robber, that you have come armed with swords and clubs to arrest me? Every day I sat teaching in the Temple precincts, yet you never arrested me.”
Narrator (Reader 1) 56All this happened in fulfillment of the writings of the prophets. Then all the disciples deserted Jesus and fled.
Jesus before Caiaphas
Narrator (Reader 2) 57Those who had seized Jesus led him off to Caiaphas, the high priest, where the religious scholars and elders had convened. 58 Peter followed at a distance as far as the high priest’s residence. Going inside, Peter sat down with the guards to await the outcome. 59The chief priests, with the whole Sanhedrin, were busy trying to obtain false testimony against Jesus, so that they might put him to death. 60 They discovered none, despite the many false witnesses who took the stand.
Narrator (Reader 3) Finally two came forward 61who stated, “This man has declared, ‘I can destroy God’s sanctuary and rebuild it in three days.” 62The high priest rose and addressed Jesus, “Have you no answer? What about this testimony leveled against you?” 63But Jesus remained silent. The high priest then said to him, “I order you to tell us under oath, before the living God, whether or not you are the Messiah, the Firstborn of God?” Jesus replied,
Jesus (Reader 1) 64“You have said it yourself. But I tell you: soon you will see the Chosen One seated at the right hand of the Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven.”
Narrator (Reader 2) 65At this, the high priest tore his robes and said, “Blasphemy! What further need do we have of witnesses? You yourselves have heard the blasphemy. 66What is your verdict?” They responded, “He deserves death!” 67Then they spat at his face and struck him with their fists. Others slapped Jesus, 68saying, “Play the prophet for us, Messiah! Who struck you?”
Peter Denies Jesus
Narrator (Reader 3) 69While this was happening, Peter was sitting in the courtyard. One of the attendants came over and said, “You were with Jesus the Galilean too, weren’t you?” 70But Peter denied it in front of everyone. He said, “I don’t know what you’re talking about!” 71When Peter went out to the gate, another attendant saw him and said to those nearby, “This one was with Jesus of Nazareth.” 72Again he cursed and denied it: “I don’t know him!”
Narrator (Reader 1) 73A little while later, some bystanders came over to Peter and said, “You certainly are one of them! Even your accent gives you away!” 74At that, Peter began cursing and swore, “I don’t know the man!” Just then a rooster began to crow, 75and Peter remembered the prediction Jesus had made: “Before the rooster crows, you will disown me three times.” Peter went out and cried bitterly.
Jesus Sent to Pilate; Judas Despairs
Narrator (Reader 2) 27: 1At daybreak, all the chief priests and the elders of the people took formal action against Jesus to put him to death. 2 They bound him and led him away to be handed over to Pilate, the governor.
Narrator (Reader 3) 3When he saw that Jesus had been condemned, Judas, who had betrayed Jesus, felt remorse. He took the thirty pieces of silver back to the chief priests and elders, 4and said, “I have sinned! I have betrayed innocent blood!” “What’s that to us?” they answered. “That’s your affair!” 5So Judas flung the money into the sanctuary and left. Then he went off and hanged himself. 6The chief priests picked up the silver, observing, “ It’s against the Law to deposit this in the Temple treasury, since it is blood money.” 7After some discussion, they used the money to buy Potter’s Field as a cemetery for foreigners. 8 That is why that field, even today, is called Blood Field. …
Hymn Journey to Gethsemane verse 2 TNCH 219
Follow then to Pilate’s hall,
View the Lord of life arraigned;
Crowned with thorns and mocked by all,
Faithfully this pain sustained.
Greater still than shame, or loss;
Jesus now must face the cross.
Narrator (Reader 1) 11 Then Jesus was arraigned before Pontius Pilate, the governor, who questioned him. “Are you the King of the Jews?” Jesus replied,
Jesus (Reader 2) “You say that I am.”
Narrator (Reader 3) 12Yet when Jesus was accused by the chief priests and elders, he made no reply. 13Pilate said to Jesus, “Surely you hear how many charges they bring against you?” 14But Jesus did not answer Pilate on a single count, much to the governor’s surprise.
Narrator (Reader 1) 15Now, on the occasion of a festival, the governor was accustomed to release one prisoner, whomever the crowd would designate.
16At the time they were holding a notorious prisoner named Barabbas. 17So when the crowd gathered, Pilate asked them, “Which one do you wish me to release for you? Barabbas? Or Jesus, the so-called Messiah?” 18Pilate knew, of course, that it was out of jealousy that they had handed Jesus over. 19While Pilate was still presiding on the bench, his wife sent him a message:
Pilate’s Wife (Reader 2) “Have nothing to do with that innocent man. I had a dream about him last night which has been troubling me all day long.”
Narrator (Reader 3) 20But the chief priests and elders convinced the crowds that they should ask for Barabbas, and have Jesus put to death. 21 So when the governor asked them, “Which one do you wish me to release for you?” they all cried,
Pilate (Reader 3) 22Pilate said to them, “Then what am I to do with Jesus, the so-called Messiah?”
Crowd “Crucify him!”
Pilate (Reader 1) 23 “Why? What crime has he committed?” Pilate asked. But they only shouted louder,
Crowd “Crucify him!”
Narrator (Reader 2) 24Pilate finally realized that he was getting nowhere with this—in fact, a riot was breaking out. Pilate called for water and washed his hands in front of the crowd, declaring as he did so, “I am innocent of this man’s blood. The responsibility is yours.”
25 The whole crowd said in reply, “Let his blood be on us and on our children.” (This needs context! see Holy Week and Anti-Semitism resources at the end of the service) *
26At that, Pilate released Barabbas to them.
Jesus Humiliated, and taken to the Place of Crucifixion
Narrator (Reader 3) Pilate had Jesus whipped with a cat-o’-nine-tails, then handed him over to be crucified.
27 The governor’s soldiers took Jesus inside the Praetorium and assembled the whole cohort around him. 28They stripped off his clothes and wrapped him in a scarlet military cloak. 29 Weaving a crown out of thorns, they pressed it onto his head and stuck a reed in his right hand. Then they began to mock Jesus by dropping to their knees, saying, “All hail, King of the Jews!” 30 They also spat at him. Afterward they took hold of the reed and struck Jesus on the head.
Narrator (Reader 1) 1Finally, when they had finished mocking him, they stripped him of the cloak, dressed him in his own clothes and led him off to crucifixion. 32On their way out, they met a Cyrenian named Simon, whom they pressed into service to carry the cross. 33 Upon arriving at a site called Golgotha—which means Skull Place— 34they gave Jesus a drink of wine mixed with a narcotic herb, which Jesus tasted but refused to drink. 35Once they had nailed Jesus to the cross, they divided his clothes among them by rolling dice;
36 then they sat down and kept watch over him. 37Above his head, they put the charge against him in writing: “This is Jesus, King of the Jews.”
Narrator (Reader 2) 38Two robbers were crucified along with Jesus, one at his right and one at his left. 39People going by insulted Jesus, shaking their heads 40and saying,
Crowd “So you are the one who was going to destroy the Temple and rebuild it in three days! Save yourself, why don’t you? Come down off that cross if you are God’s Own!”
41The religious authorities also joined in the jeering:
Crowd 42“He saved others but he cannot save himself!
So he’s the King of Israel!
Let’s see him come down from that cross, and then we will believe in him.
43 He trusts in God; let God rescue him now!
after all, he claimed to be God’s Own!”
44The robbers who had been crucified with Jesus jeered at him in the same way.
Narrator (Reader 3) 45At noon, a darkness fell over the whole land until about three in the afternoon. 46At that hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice,
Jesus (Reader 1) “Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?” which means, “My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?”
Narrator (Reader 2) 47This made some of the bystanders who heard it remark, “He is calling for Elijah!” 48One of them hurried off and got a sponge. He soaked the sponge in cheap wine and, sticking it on a reed, tried to make Jesus drink. 49 The others said, “Leave him alone. Let’s see whether Elijah comes to his rescue.”
Narrator (Reader 3) 50 Once again, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, then he gave up his spirit.
Congregations hearing the Passion read traditionally pause here
in silent prayer
Hymn What Wondrous Love is This? Verse 1
What wondrous love is this, O my soul, O my soul!
What wondrous love is this, O my soul!
What wondrous love is this that Christ should come in bliss
o bear the heavy cross for my soul, for my soul,
to bear the heavy cross, for my soul!</strong
Narrator (Reader 1) 51Suddenly, the curtain in front of the Holy of Holies was ripped in half from top to bottom. The earth quaked, boulders were split 52 and tombs were opened. Many bodies of holy ones who had fallen asleep were raised. 53 After Jesus’ resurrection, they came out of their tombs and entered the holy city, and appeared to many.
Narrator (Reader 2) 54 The centurion and his cohort, who were standing guard over Jesus’ body, were terror-stricken at seeing the earthquake and all that was happening, and said, “Clearly, this was God’s own!”
Narrator (Reader 3) 55A group of women were present, looking on from a distance. These were the same women who had followed Jesus from Galilee as ministers to him. 56 Among them were Mary of Magdala; Mary, the mother of James and Joseph; and the mother of Zebedee’s children.
Narrator (Reader 1) 57When evening fell, a wealthy man from Arimathea named Joseph, who had become a disciple of Jesus, 58came to request the body of Jesus; Pilate issued an order for its release. 59Taking the body, Joseph wrapped it in fresh linen 60and laid it in his own tomb, which had been hewn out of rock. Then Joseph rolled a huge stone across the entrance of the tomb and went away.
61But Mary of Magdala and the other Mary remained sitting there, facing the tomb.
A Roman Guard Posted
Narrator (Reader 2) 62The next day—the one following the day of Preparation—the chief priests and the Pharisees called at Pilate’s residence
63 and said, “We recall that, while he was still alive, the impostor made the claim, ‘After three days I will rise again.’ 64Therefore, please issue an order to keep the tomb under surveillance until the third day. Otherwise, Jesus’ disciples might go and steal his body and tell the people, ‘Jesus has been raised from the dead!’ This final deception would be worse than the first.” 65Pilate said to them, “You have a guard. Go and secure the tomb as best you can.” 66So they went to seal the tomb and post a guard.
The congregation reflects in silence.
As the congregation leaves the worship space, they are invited to take a palm from the floor—invested now not only with the memory of the triumphal entrance, but with the whole story of the passion of Jesus.
From Palms to Passion: The Story of Jesus’ Last Days in Jerusalem for Palm/Passion Sunday was devised by the Rev. John A. Nelson for Year C, and adapted for Year A by the Rev. Susan Blain.
Copyright 2020, Justice and Local Church Ministries, Faith INFO Ministry Team, United Church of Christ, 700 Prospect Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44115-1100. Permission granted to reproduce or adapt this material for use in services of worship or church education. All publishing rights reserved.
Scripture text is reprinted by permission of the publishers from The Inclusive Bible: The First Egalitarian Translation, Trans. Priests for Equality, Copyright © 2009 Quixote Center.
Pave the Way with Justice copyright © 1999 Bret Hesla is reprinted with permission.
Adapted words for Journey to Gethsemane copyright © 1995 Pilgrim Press and What Wondrous Love copyright © 1995 Pilgrim Press are used with permission.
* Perspectives on Palm Sunday/Holy Week:
Eco-Palms: For Palms grown in sustainable conditions, check out Eco-Palms: https://ecopalms.org/
Entering the Passion of Jesus: A Beginner’s Guide to Holy Week
Amy-Jill Levine © 2018 Abingdon Press
Preaching God’s Transforming Justice Year A; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Allen and Andres, eds; © 2013 Westminster John Knox Press. Notes on Matthew’s Passion Narrative begin on page 178
*Holy Week and Anti-Semitism
Beliefnet: Amy-Jill Levine article:
America Magazine reprint of RE Brown article:
International Council of Christians and Jews: Matthew’s Gospel and Judaism, by Dorothy Lee http://www.jcrelations.net/Matthew's+Gospel+and+Judaism.2201.0.html?L=3
The Jewish Annotated New Testament (NRSV); Amy-Jill Levine and Marc Zvi Brettler, eds © 2011 Oxford University Press. Verse by verse notes on Matthew 26-27 begin on page 47