A resource for congregations designed to aid pastors and lay leaders in developing a congregational Planned Giving ministry. Includes sections devoted to establishing and promoting a Planned Giving program, congregational endowments, wills emphasis, how life-income gifts work, and more. The quintessential Planned Giving resource!
Section I Introduction to Planned Giving Ministry
Section II — Congregational Planned Giving Ministry
Section III — Donors and Prospects
Section IV — An Overview of Congregational Endowments
Section V — Three Educational Models
Section VI — Life Income and Other Gifts
Section VII — Resources
A Summary of Ways of Giving
Foreword and Table of Contents
Annuitant The individual who receives lifetime payments from a gift annuity.
Annuity/Gift Annuity An irrevocable gift which pays income for life to one or two recipients (annuitants); the rate of return is based on the age(s) of the annuitant(s) at the time the gift is funded.
Appreciated Property Property, such as real estate or securities, that has a value greater than its cost basis.
Capital Gains, Realized Capital Gains The excess of money received from the sale of property over the original amount paid for the property (cost basis).
Charitable Income Tax Deduction The amount a donor can deduct on a federal income tax return (if the donor itemizes) for a charitable gift.
Charitable Lead Trust A gift which provides fixed or variable current income for church or charity for the life of the donor or for a term of years, after which the remaining principal reverts to the donor or donor's heirs.
Charitable Remainder Annuity Trust An irrevocable gift which pays a fixed dollar amount annually to one or more income beneficiaries for life or for a term of years, after which the principal becomes a gift to the church or charity designated by the donor.
Charitable Remainder Unitrust An irrevocable gift which pays a fixed percentage of the Trust's value, as revalued annually, to one or more income beneficiaries for life or for a term of years, after which the principal becomes a gift to the church or charity designated by the donor.
Charitable Remainder Beneficiary, Charitable Beneficiary The charity identified by the donor in a gift contract to receive the remaining principal after the life income beneficiaries' death or termination of contract.
Codicil An addition or amendment to a will.
Cost Basis The original cost of property plus improvements and other expenses paid by the owner during the period of ownership.
Deferred Gifts Another term for planned gift, i.e. a carefully considered way of giving out of one's accumulated assets that is prearranged through a will, a trust, or other life income agreement that may provide lifetime income for one or more individuals, where upon their deaths the remaining principal will go to the named charitable beneficiary.
Deferred Payment Gift Annuity Identical to a Gift Annuity except that instead of income payments beginning immediately, they begin at a future date specified by the donor. This usually has the effect of increasing the rate of return.
Endowment A fund whose principal is held in perpetuity, and income only is distributed.
Executor/Executrix The individual named in a will to settle the testator's estate.
Federal Estate Tax The tax imposed on the transfer of property upon death.
Federal Gift Tax The tax imposed on the transfer of property during the lifetime of the donor. This tax is paid by the donor.
Intestate Dying without a will.
Life Expectancy An estimated calculation of the number of years a person will live from any particular age.
Memorial Gift A gift in memory of a deceased individual.
Pooled Income Fund A life-income gift which functions like a mutual fund, in that each income recipient receives lifetime quarterly payments based on her/his proportion of the Fund. Gifts are irrevocable, may name one or two persons as income recipients, and pay the remaining principal to the church or charity designated by the donor.
Prospect An individual identified as being a potential donor.
Residuary Clause A clause in a will that bequeaths or devises property not already disposed of earlier in the will.
Revocable Trust A life-income gift which pays a fixed percentage of the trust's value, as revalued annually, to one or more income beneficiaries for life; however, the donor may make withdrawals from principal or revoke the trust entirely. No tax deduction is available to the donor at the time the trust is established.
Secondary Beneficiary The person named in a gift agreement to receive the life income payments should the primary beneficiary predecease him or her.
Testamentary Trust A trust created by a provision in a person's will.
Testator The individual making a will.
Trustee The individual or institution that is responsible for administering a trust.
Trust Principal The assets of a trust.
The Gift Calculator may now be used to illustrate a Deferred Payment Gift Annuity, which is similar to an "immediate" Annuity except that income is delayed until a future date chosen by the donor. Delaying the start of income payments may significantly increase your rate of return.
UCC rates for Deferred Payment Gift Annuities are limited to the percentages set forth below of the American Council on Gift Annuities recommended rates. That is, if you wish to defer income payments for more than five years, multiply the "Payout Rate" which is produced by your gift calculation by the percentage listed below, according to the deferral period you have chosen. If you have questions about this, please contact the Financial Development Ministry at (800) 846-6822 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
|Deferral Period in Years
|% of Recommended Rates
In this Issue: Ministry Focus – 2012 National Youth Event; 7 Costly Estate Planning Fallacies.
In this Issue: Ministry Focus – Financial Development Ministry; Financial Development Ministry 2011 Annual Report; How Your Life-Income Gift Charitable Deduction is Determined.
In this Issue: Ministry Focus – 2030 Clergy Network; Financial Development Ministry 2010 Annual Report; Using Your Retirement Assets to Make a Gift to the Church.
In this Issue: Ministry Focus – Wider Church Ministries, Generosity Is Zambia’s Heart; End-of-Year Planning Checklist.
In this Issue: Centro Romero – A Center for Education and Transformation; United Church of Christ Life-Income Gift Report; Endowments – Unleashing the Power of Your vision.
In this Issue: Changing Lives through Our Church's Wider Mission (OCWM); A Surprise from the IRS; 4 Ways to Distribute Your IRA; Is Now A Good Time to Establish a Charitable Gift Annuity?
In this Issue: Have You Remembered the UCC in Your Will?; What You Can Do With Your Will; Financial Development Ministry 2008 Annual Report
In this Issue: Ministry Focus - Parish Life & Leadership Scholarships; Add Years To Your Retirement Income
In this Issue: Ministry Focus: Evangelism Ministry Team - i.UCC; Financial Development Ministry Annual Report; Bequests: Simple, Yet Often the Most Meaningful Gifts; The United Church Foundation: Socially Responsible Investing and Faith-Based Investing Basics.
In this Issue: Now Is the Time To Plan Year-End Charitable Gifts; How You Can Benefit by Giving Life Insurance; Immeasurable Worth: Bethany Children's Home Helps Youth Move From Survival To Success.
In this issue: Ministry Focus: United Church of Christ 50th Anniversary Fund; Financial Development Ministry Annual Report; Use Your Retirement Assets to Make a Gift to the Church.
In this issue: Ministry Focus: Franklinton Center at Bricks; Thinking About Establishing a Charitable Gift Annuity? Here's How it Works; Payments for Life from a Charitable Gift Annuity.
In this issue: Ministry Focus: United Church of Christ Wider Church Ministries; Annual Report; Hidden Wealth: Can You Increase Income by Giving Money Away?; The Miracle of RHF: Retirement Housing Foundation Celebrates 45 Years of Making Affordable Housing a Reality.
In this issue: Inheritance Planning: Promises to Keep, United Church of Christ Gift Annuities: Frequently Asked Questions, New Church Challenge Fund.
Our Whole Lives Sexuality Education, Grades 7-9, 2nd edition
The United Church of Christ, in conjunction with the Unitarian Universalist Association, has released the second edition of the sexuality education program Our Whole Lives geared toward youth in grades 7 to 9. The second edition introduces new content, activities, perspectives, language, and resources that will help today's young teens make informed and responsible decisions about their sexual health and behavior by providing accurate, age-appropriate information.
New topics in the second edition include bullying and bystander responsibilities; sexuality, social media, and the Internet; body image; consent education; and communicating with a sexual partner. The addition also includes a section on "Taking a Special Education Approach to Sexuality Education" to help facilitators include in their programs youth with autism spectrum disorders, attention disorders, intellectual disabilities, and learning disabilities.
Order your copy of the new edition online via UCC Resources or by calling 1.800.537.3394. For those who are replacing first editions or who have or are attending an Our Whole Lives Facilitator Training, you may request 25% off the purchase price. The Sexuality and Our Faith Companion to Our Whole Lives, 2nd edition is also available for use in United Church of Christ and Unitarian Universalist congregations.
For more information about the revisions or to sign up for a webinar about the changes, please contact Amy Johnson, UCC Our Whole Lives Coordinator at JohnsonA@ucc.org.
Check out the NEW Content and Order of Workshops:
Unit One: Introduction
Workshop 1: What is Sexuality?
This session quickly engages participants and establishes the Our Whole Lives setting as a comfortable place to talk about even the toughest subjects. Participants craft rules to promote positive group interaction and mutual respect. They explore the Circles of Sexuality -- a broad definition of sexuality -- that will be further refined and clarified throughout the program. In addition, they learn about the content, format, and underlying values of Our Whole Lives.
Workshop 2: Examining Values
Through activities including an exciting Values Auction, participants clarify their own values, share points of view, and reflect on the strength of their own values. They become familiar with and are asked to respect values held by others.
Workshop 3: The Language of Sexuality
Participants explore the diversity of sexual language and its impact, usefulness, and appropriateness in different contexts. After building lists of terms for sexual anatomy and activity, participants weigh the styles of language they and others use against the values they explored in Workshop 2. Standards are set for language used in the Our Whole Lives setting.
Unit Two: You, as a Sexual Being
Workshop 4: Anatomy and Physiology
The Constructing Sex Systems activity in this workshop is one of several ways of reinforcing accurate information and correcting misunderstanding about sexual anatomy and physiology. Participants learn that knowing and talking about sexual organs and their functions is both normal and appropriate.
Workshop 5: Personal Concerns About Puberty
Participants have an opportunity to talk about personal questions and concerns regarding their own growth and development. They can explore accurate information, clear up myths, and get answers to their questions. In the process, they become aware of diverse body types, sizes, behaviors, and rates of physical, emotional, and social development. Optional sex-specific discussion groups give youth an opportunity to talk about personal aspects of sexual health and hygiene with adults who have gone through similar changes.
Workshop 6: Body Image
This workshop defines body image as a person’s perception of, attitudes toward, and feelings about their body. Participants explore societal influences on body image and learn how positive and negative body image can affect a person’s sexual attitudes, decision-making, and behaviors.
Workshop 7: Gender Identity
By building a chart defining biological sex, gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation, participants visualize the differences between sexual identity constructs. They have a chance to gain or deepen their understanding of the ways that biological sex, gender identity, and gender expression may align or not align for different people. In addition, they discuss some of the challenges faced by transgender people (themselves or others) while learning techniques that have helped people to feel empowered and to be supportive.
Workshop 8: Gender Expression, Roles, & Stereotypes
Participants explore their beliefs about gender-role expectations, and they critically evaluate gender-role messages they have received. They identify how stereotypes hurt people of all gender identities and learn steps they can take to overcome gender-role restrictions affecting themselves and others.
Workshop 9: Sexual Orientation
This workshop explores all sexual orientations but emphasizes lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) orientations due to the continuing existence of heterosexism (the assumption that everyone is or should be heterosexual), homophobia (bias against LGBQ people), and biphobia (aversion toward bisexuality and bisexual people). Participants gain knowledge and skills and explore attitudes that affirm the dignity and worth of people of all sexual orientations.
Workshop 10: Guest Panel
A guest panel deepens participants’ understanding of, and empathy with, people who face homophobia, heterosexism, biphobia, and/or transphobia. This workshop is one of the most healing activities Our Whole Lives educators can facilitate for youth. Interacting with individuals who are LGBTQ provides an opportunity to put real faces on the issue and to move beyond stereotypes. Panelists can also serve as role models for participants who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer or questioning.
Workshop 11: Sexuality and Disability
All participants may benefit from this workshop: Participants without disabilities have an opportunity to gain understanding of and empathy for people with disabilities while recognizing that as sexual human beings, they share many commonalities. Participants with disabilities can appreciate their peers’ empathy toward them and acceptance of them as sexual beings. The workshop communicates the message that friendship and attraction are normal among and between people with and without disabilities.
Unit Three: Relationships
Workshop 12: Healthy Relationships
Through a series of engaging activities and discussion, participants learn the basics of healthy relationships and begin to identify the characteristics of romantic partners who can support them in exploring and defining their identities, developing interpersonal skills, and gaining emotional support.
Workshop 13: Relationship Skills
Scripted role plays in this workshop teach skills that will help prepare participants to be best friends and loving partners in lifelong commitments or marital relationships. Focused on listening, being assertive, and using refusal skills, the session can enhance all types of relationships.
Unit Four: Contemporary Issues
Workshop 14: Sexuality, Social Media and the Internet
Technology can enrich young teens’ knowledge and/or social relationships in safe, life-affirming ways if approached with care, information about available options, and an awareness of appropriate use. The workshop addresses both computer and cell phone use; however, the activities will not require that participants have either cell phones or access to a computer.
Workshop 15: Bullying & Bystander Responsibilities
A great deal of bullying relates to sexuality, so young teens need to know how to recognize it and effectively respond to it, whether they are victims or bystanders. This workshop discusses both indirect and direct bullying, debunks myths and provides realistic solutions.
Unit Five: Responsible Sexual Behavior
Workshop 16: Redefining Abstinence
Participants explore the concept of abstinence, which is redefined as refraining from sexual intercourse (oral, anal, or vaginal), as well as skin-to-skin genital contact. This definition of abstinence excludes higher risk sexual behaviors but allows for the possibility of healthy and safe non-intercourse sexual behaviors, such as masturbation and outercourse.
Workshop 17: Lovemaking
Lovemaking is placed in a moral context when negative and erroneous media messages are combatted with honest discussions of sexual behavior. Participants are encouraged to take away the message that lovemaking is a positive and life-enhancing experience when it is consensual, non-exploitative, mutually pleasurable, safe, developmentally appropriate, based on mutual expectations and caring, and respectful.
Workshop 18: Consent Education
Participants explore different forms of sexual violation that can occur between relationship partners, peers, and acquaintances, while they gain strategies to prevent and handle these violations. The workshop emphasizes that we each have the right to consent or not consent, and we have the responsibility to stand up for ourselves and others in situations of harassment, coercion, or assault.
Unit Six: STIs, Pregnancy, & Parenting Decisions
Workshop 19: Sexually Transmitted Infections
This workshop takes a unique social justice approach by reinforcing the following values: healthy sexual relationships are safe (no or low risk of unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and emotional pain); all persons have the right and obligation to make responsible sexual choices; and individuals are responsible for caring for their own sexual health and for promoting the wellbeing of their partners, friends, and loved ones.
Workshop 20: Pregnancy, Parenting, & Teen Parenting
Starting with a review of the process of conception, participants are shown how easily pregnancy may occur. They explore the fact that while parenthood can be fun and rewarding, it is also challenging and expensive. The responsibilities of parenthood are addressed, along with its possible impact on participants’ goals and futures.
Workshop 21: Unintended Pregnancy Options
As they learn about three possible options for resolving an unintended pregnancy, participants explore their attitudes toward and feelings about being faced with an unintended pregnancy. They also practice making the very difficult decision of how to respond to an unintended pregnancy.
Workshop 22: Contraception and Safer Sex
Participants are given the message that careful, consistent use of protection against pregnancy and STIs can make sexual behavior more caring and responsible. They practice evaluating behaviors and their risk for unintended pregnancies and STIs, in an affirming and accepting atmosphere that promotes personal responsibility and planning for the consequences of sexual behavior. Options to the workshop plan including bringing in a guest speaker or taking a field trip to a reproductive health center.
Unit Seven: Communicating about Sexuality
Workshop 23: Sexual Decision Making
This workshop gives participants an opportunity to apply knowledge gained from earlier workshops to consider how they will make future decisions about sexual behavior. They will discuss why teens choose to engage or not to engage in sexual behaviors, and they will articulate where they stand on having sex at this time in their lives. In the process, they can gain self confidence in their ability to make healthy and wise decisions.
Workshop 24: Communicating with a Sexual Partner
Participants apply knowledge gained during Our Whole Lives to the process of communicating with a partner—initiating conversations, communicating relationship bottom lines, and responding to arguments against using protection. They learn and practice a strategy for negotiating with a partner despite disagreement about key issues, such as using protection.
Workshop 25: Self Care, Celebration, & Closure
This culminating session of Our Whole Lives provides the opportunity for facilitators and participants to reflect on their shared experience. Participants identify connections between their sexual health and their general health and wellness, with the goal of recognizing themselves as gatekeepers of their own health and wellness. They list gains they’ve made during the program and describe the impact of Our Whole Lives on their knowledge, feelings, and behavior.
Other Resources5 Reasons to Talk About Sex in the Church
In February 2013, a searchable online listing of all UCC Ministry Opportunities replaced the previous United Church Employment Opportunities weekly bulletin. UCEO was a listing updated weekly. UCC Ministry Opportunities is a live, dynamic database built for exploring God's call.
UCC Ministry Opportunities - Online
NEW! - updated in real time
Neighbors in Need (NIN) is a special mission offering of the United Church of Christ that supports ministries of justice and compassion throughout the United States. One-third of NIN funds support the Council for American Indian Ministry (CAIM). Two-thirds of this offering is used by the UCC's Justice and Witness Ministries (JWM) to support a variety of justice initiatives, advocacy efforts, and direct service projects through grants. Neighbors in Need grants are awarded to UCC churches and organizations doing justice work in their communities. These grants fund projects whose work ranges from direct service to community organizing and advocacy to address systemic injustice. This year, special consideration will be given to projects focusing on serving our immigrant neighbors and communities.
Most UCC congregations will receive the NIN offering on October 6, 2019 as part of their World Communion Sunday observance. However, some local churches select another date. NIN contributions can be made on-line at any time here.
Introducing a simple tool to help you record and interpret your worship attendance numbers. This spreadsheet allows you to record your attendance figures and track on a graph changes in worship attendance over time. All you need is Excel and information you probably already collect.
The Stillspeaking Ministry adapted this tool based on the one created to serve the people of Country Club Congregational United Church of Christ in Kansas City, MO. Thanks for sharing!
The Committee on Ministry Toolkit
The COM Toolkit is for use by persons such as Conference and Association staff or others who provide committee leadership and are involved in the training and orientation of Committee on the Ministry members. The Toolkit is also helpful to committee members engaged in individual study in order to gain a more in-depth understanding of committee members' roles. The purpose of the Toolkit is to:
- Provide a comprehensive tool for the orientation and training of new and renewing Committee on the Ministry members;
- Assist committee members in their individual efforts to understand the scope and breath of the ministry they have been called to in and on behalf of the church;
- Offer an interactive resource that engages participants in a variety of activities to introduce and broaden committee members' knowledge and understanding of the ministry they are called to perform, in and on behalf of the United Church of Christ.
The Toolkit consists of four key components:
- PowerPoint Presentation consisting of 115 color slides with commentary;
- Presentation Leader's Guide for use with the PowerPoint presentation;
- Facilitator Resource with detailed information on each of the eight units;
- Committee Handouts for each unit.
As you consider the most productive use of this resource with your committee(s), we recommend that you consider using the Committee on the Ministry Toolkit in the following ways:
- Retreat settings that enable a complete overview of the resource and allow for in-depth committee discussion about the total work of the committee;
- Regularly scheduled meetings of the committee where you can engage the committee in discussion of one (or more) aspects of the work. The material is arranged in units making it easier to focus on particular aspects of your work in manageable sessions.
- Immediate resource in response to questions about any aspect of committee work.
UCC Resources - Formula of Agreement
UCC Resources - Guidelines for Resourcing
UCC Resources - Interim Ministry Guide
UCC Resources - Manual on Church (MOC)
UCC Resources - MOC Discussion
UCC Resources - MOC Feedback
UCC Resources - Manual on Ministry - Table of Contents (MOM)
UCC Resources - MOM Section One
UCC Resources - MOM Section Two
UCC Resources - MOM Section Three
UCC Resources - MOM Section Four
UCC Resources - MOM Section Five
UCC Resources - MOM Section Six
UCC Resources - MOM Section Seven
UCC Resources - MOM Section Eight
UCC Resources - MOM Section Nine
UCC Resources - MOM Section Ten
UCC Constitution and Bylaws
On any given day, about 70,000 children and youth are held in juvenile residential detention in the U.S., and an additional 10,000 are incarcerated in adult jails and prisons. Because of their youth, size and developmental status, they are especially vulnerable to maltreatment while incarcerated. According to Justice for Families, one in eight youths report having been sexually assaulted by corrections staff or other minors during their incarceration.
But incarceration is not their only connection to the criminal justice system. Children are twice as likely as adults to be victims of violent crimes. And an estimated 1.5 million children currently have a parent in prison.
Spending time behind bars can have a tremendous effect on the lives of young people. According to Justice for Families, 69 percent of families surveyed reported that it was difficult or very difficult to get their children back into school following a detention. Once in the system, many remain incarcerated or return on new charges. The Annie E. Casey Foundation estimates that within three years of release from detention, up to 72 percent of juvenile offenders are convicted of a new crime. The number of young adults aged 18 to 29 in U.S. prisons is more than 775,000. Once they exit the system, young people who have been incarcerated suffer significant earning losses compared to their peers who have not been incarcerated – up to 30 percent for as long as ten years after their release. This can be offset by good experiences with employment, marriage, and graduation from high school.
There is growing concern that too many children are moving directly from public schools into juvenile detention in a pattern so prominent it has become known as the school to prison pipeline. These may be students whose reading skills are so low in middle school that they fall behind and drop out as they enter high school. They may have fallen into sequential sanctions of zero tolerance discipline policies. They may be students who have never felt connected to any of the adults at school or who have never participated in a co-curricular activity.
We are making progress. In March 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court abolished capital punishment for juvenile offenders. And in June 2012, the Court issued a historic ruling that mandatory life without parole sentences cannot be given for children 17 and younger who are convicted of homicide. The ruling does not ban juvenile life without parole sentences, but requires courts to consider each case carefully, taking into consideration the diminished culpability of children and their capacity for change. This ruling will affect hundreds of people who received life sentences for crimes committed as children, and their sentencing must now be reviewed.
Churches should be concerned about the children who feel hopeless or thrown away. Here are resources that will help you explore the entire continuum of the school-prison pipeline. Then we hope you will find a place where a group from your church can be involved ... anywhere along the pipeline.
November 2012: The National Research Council has published Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach.
The Equal Justice Initiative is a nonprofit human rights organization that focuses on children and the incarcerated, challenges injustices, and works for criminal justice system reform. It currently seeks to end prosecution of children under age 14 as adults and placing juveniles in adult detention. See especially All Children are Children: Challenging Abusive Punishment of Juveniles, EJI, 2012.
The Child Trends Data Bank offers information on children, youth and young adults in the justice system.
There are also several relevant UCC General Synod resolutions which offer more detailed background and discussion, including the Juvenile Justice Resolution (GS23-2001), calling for opportunities for alternative sentencing, education and prevention, and a resolution on Access to Excellent Public Schools: A Child’s Right in the 21st Century (GS23-2001), which led to the convening of the UCC Public Education Task Force.
On the School-to-Prison Pipeline
- Read a New York ACLU Report, Criminalizing the Classroom.
- Read a report from the National Economic and Social Rights Initiative, Deprived of Dignity: Degrading Treatment and Abusive Discipline in New York City & Los Angeles Public Schools.
- Read the Advancement Project's Education on Lockdown: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track or Derailed: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track.
- Locating the Dropout Crisis from Johns Hopkins University, or Opportunities Suspended: The Devastating Consequences of Zero Tolerance School Discipline Policies from the Civil Rights Project.
On Juvenile Justice
October-November 2009 Youth Criminal Justice Alert: The United Church of Christ Justice & Witness Ministries has become part of an amicus brief in two important cases coming before the U.S. Supreme Court on November 9, 2009: Sullivan v. Florida and Graham v. Florida. Joe Sullivan at the time of his crime lived at home, was mentally disabled and was thirteen years old. That day two older boys convinced Joe to participate in a burglary. That morning the boys took money and jewelry then left the female victim's house. Later that afternoon Ms. Bruner was sexually assaulted but never saw her attacker. One of the two older boys accused Joe Sullivan of the rape, which he denies, and the evidence against him is flimsy, at best. The two older boys received shorter sentences and Joe Sullivan's trial was held in adult court before a six person jury and lasted one day. At age 16 Terrance Graham committed the only offenses for which he has ever been convicted. He was an accomplice to an armed burglary and attempted armed robbery of a restaurant. Graham pled guilty to these offenses stemming from this single incident, and as part of a subsequent probation violation he committed as a juvenile, he was sentenced to the statutory maximum penalty. While these crimes are serious and merit appropriate punishment, they absolutely do not merit life in prison without the possibility of parole. Minors are recognized under all social conditions as persons who are not yet fully developed mentally, psychologically, or physically. To condemn them to life in prison is cruel, unusual and extreme punishment for these or any other crimes. The cruelty and inappropriateness of such sentencing is recognized throughout the world, and has been codified in human rights declarations for decades. Please Note: Joe Sullivan is one of only two 13 year olds who have received life without parole sentences for crimes which the victim did not die. Both of these sentences were imposed in Florida.
- 2012: All Children Are Children: Challenging Abusive Punishment of Juveniles, Equal Justice Initiative.
- October 7, 2009: Children's Exposure to Violence: A Comprehensive National Survey, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
- 2009: From Time Out to Hard Time: Young Children in the Adult Criminal Justice System, Lyndon B. Johnson School of PUblic Affairs, University of Texas at Austin.
- Check out the website of the Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, that offers policy analysis, guidance for program development and technical assistance.
- Read a report by Peter E. Leone and Sheri Meisel for the National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice: Improving Education Services for Students in Detention and Confinement Facilities.