La Misión Educativa de la Iglesia Unida de Cristo
A la Iglesia Unida de Cristo
La Misión Educativa de la Iglesia Unida de Cristo
Hacia una Visión de la Educación en la Iglesia Unida de Cristo
Medios Donde Ocurre el Aprendizaje
Educación a Traves de la Vida
Un Llamado al Diálogo
A la Iglesia Unida de Cristo
¿Cuál es el centro de la vida de la Iglesia? ¿Qué es lo que predicamos y enseñamos? ¿Cuál es el "corazón" del evangelio?
Predicamos a Cristo crucificado, a Cristo como el poder y la sabiduría de Dios."Porque lo insensato de Dios es más sabio que los hombres y lo débil de Dios es más fuerte que los hombres". (I Cor. 1:23-25). En la cruz de Cristo, Dios reconcilió al mundo consigo mismo. En el momento más obscuro de la historia humana, la luz fue revelada, las vidas transformadas y la reconciliación es un hecho.
¿Cómo predica y enseña la Iglesia, hoy? Allan Boesak el gran teólogo y líder negro de Sur Africa, ha dicho: "La reconciliación no es sentirse bién; es una lucha contra el mal.
Para poder reconciliar, Cristo murió. No podemos engañarnos. La reconciliación no significa tomarnos de las manos y cantar: "Negros y blancos unidos". Significa morir y sufrir; ofrecer nuestra vida por el bien de los otros. (Negro y reformado, Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1984, pág. 29).
No todo lo que enseñamos en las iglesias es correcto. No se escucha el mensaje de reconciliación y transformación; y sus implicaciones no se entienden. La gracia y la verdad no han redimido el sufrimiento de muchos seres humanos. La Iglesia, las congregaciones, incluyendo muchos ministros y muchas ministras, han perdido contacto con el lenguaje, símbolos y textos de la fe. Muchas personas se sienten faltos de conocimiento e inarticulados en su fe. Los sistemas educativos han fracasado debido a lo individualizados y fragmentados que son. Puede ser un fracaso de la Iglesia; ser precisamente la Iglesia—ser Cristo visible y encarnado, ser un agente de reconciliación en el mundo. Pero, parte del fracaso radica en los ministerios educativos de la Iglesia, y el pueblo de Dios está pidiendo un cambio.
Dentro de la "Iglesia Unida de Cristo (UCC)", la Junta de Ministerios Domésticos (UCBHM), a través de la División de Educación y Publicación, tiene la responsabilidad de los ministerios educativos de la Iglesia.
En 1985, la Junta de Directores de la Junta de Ministerios Domésticos, adoptó su posición sobre la misión; al hacer un llamamiento hacia una reforma profunda y creativa en los ministerios educativos de la Iglesia. Esta visión e intención nos hace pensar sobre lo inadecuado del sistema educativo, tanto en la teoría como en la práctica y el exceso de dependencia en la iglesia local como única responsable de la educación. Reconoce la necesidad urgente de las personas, iglesias locales e instituciones en redescubrir el lenguaje de la fe y en reclamar el poder transformador y reconciliador.
Durante el otoño del 1986, la División de Educación y Publicación comenzó a desarrollar "el concepto educativo; su programa y los recursos adecuados" para los ministerios educativos de la Iglesia Unida de Cristo.
Los siguientes pasos han sido emprendidos hacia ese fin:
Se han llevado a cabo estudios y discusiones para explorar necesidades y posibilidades para la educación.
Se desarrolló el lema de "Hacia una visión de la educación en la Iglesia Unida de Cristo".
Dicho lema será discutido en varios lugares durante la primavera de 1989, con atención particular en las preguntas sugeridas.
En mayo de 1989, el componente de la División de Educación y Publicación radicará propuestas para programas y recursos para la consideración de la Junta de Directores de la Junta de Ministerios Domésticos, y grupos subsiguientes tales como: instituciones e iglesias locales. La tarea asignada se completará en 1989 y comenzará el plan para su implantación.
Miramos hacia el 1990, como una década de reforma y renovación de los ministerios educativos. Bajo esa expectativa ofrecemos este documento para reflexión y discusión. Le invitamos a participar en el proceso, su respuesta a este documento, y sobre todo su compromiso con la educación equipa la Iglesia para el ministerio.
La Misión Educativa de la Iglesia Unida de Cristo
La División de Educación y Publicación, es la división programática responsable de los ministerios educativos de la Junta de Ministerios Domésticos. Está estructurada para que esta misión educativa produzca un alcance integral en la Iglesia Unida de Cristo. La tarea de la división es el desarrollo de un concepto educativo, el programa y los recursos adecuados basados en:
Conocimiento de cómo se capacita la Iglesia para educar las personas en su vida cristiana, su fe y discipulado, además de otros medios tales como: la escuela bíblica, vida congregacional y educación superior.
Alcances que no estén limitados al conocimiento sobre el ciclo de la vida humana o elementos culturales y ecológicos que afectan el aprendizaje humano.
El mandato anterior de la División de Educacióny Publicación adoptado por la Junta de Ministerios Domésticos de la Iglesia Unida de Cristo en 1985, provee el impulso y el contexto para el argumento que continúa.
La Iglesia como "cuerpo de Cristo", es una señal de sanidad y esperanza en un mundo fragmentado. Como miembros de ese cuerpo se nos ha confiado el mensaje de reconciliación y hemos sido hechos mayordomos de los misterios de Dios. (2 Cor.5:19; lCor. 4:1)
Hacia una Visión de la Educación en la Iglesia Unida de Cristo
El corazón humano esta necesitado de propósito y significado para sus vidas.
La Iglesia esta enmarcada por su visión, dirección y arrojo. La gente, tanto de adentro como de afuera, necesitan conocer las Escrituras, articular su fe y apreciar claramente la relación entre el evangelio y la realidad del mundo.
La Junta de Ministerios Domésticos de la Iglesia Unidade Cristo, al reconocer los cambios rápidos y radicales que ocurren en el orden natural y social, la ausencia de visión en la sociedad y el silencio frecuente de los cristianos y cristianas, llama a una renovación en el compromiso con la educación que equipe a los santos para el ministerio, (Ef. 4:12) Y señala la necesidad urgente en la transformación de las personas y nuestra vida común.
La Junta de Ministerios Domésticos, presenta una visión de la educación en la Iglesia Unida de Cristo, en la cual todos y todas se comprometan a aprender através de la vida en una variedad de medios.
Dicha visión requiere reformar la misión educativa de la Iglesia, la trayectoria histórica del ministro y la ministra como maestro y maestra, el compromiso del laicado en los ministerios educativos de la Iglesia. Perseguimos clarificar esta visión a través de la discusión, reflexión y acción que involucre toda la Iglesia Unida de Cristo; sus congregaciones y parroquias, conferencias y asociaciones, agencias e instituciones, ministerios y misión.
Por lo cual, afirmamos los siguientes principios fundamentales:
La misión de la iglesia comienza con Dios, quien crea, sostiene y redime el mundo y la vida.
Las personas de todas las edades y condiciones están alimentadas por la continua incursión en la fe y la experiencia cristiana; como también, por la constante búsqueda de sabiduría, justicia y belleza en la sociedad.
Los fundamentos para la misión educativa de la Iglesia Unida de Cristo son:
El pacto de Dios con Israel y el testimonio apostólico de Jesucristo.
La naturaleza, propósito y fe de la Iglesia.
La presencia reformadora del Espíritu Santo.
La historia y tradiciones de la Iglesia Unida de Cristo.
El entendimiento cristiano del ser humano y la sociedad.
El milenio social y cultural del mundo en el cual nosotros vivimos.
En cada nueva era, la Iglesia debe buscar modelos y métodos educativos que respondan y dirijan el cambio.
Dios nos enseña a través de fuentes inesperadas. Por lo tanto, los cristianos y las cristianas debemos abrirnos a todas las personas que persigan y sirvan a la verdad.
La educación en la Iglesia Unida de Cristo está reforzada y formada por la diversidad racial, étnica, cultural y geográfica de sus miembros.
La educación en la Iglesia Unida de Cristo debe tener sus raíces en la historia bíblica de la fe cristiana, en el llamado al discipulado cristiano y en la revelación transformadora de Dios en nuestro tiempo.
A la luz de esta visión y principios, la Junta de Ministerios Domésticos de la Iglesia Unida de Cristo, insiste en la necesidad de una reforma y una renovación de los ministerios educativos; y que la educación de la vida, la fe y el discipulado cristiano surga de la atención a la variedad de medios y temas a través de la vida.
Medios Donde Ocurre el Aprendizaje
El aprendizaje surje en una variedad de medios. Invitamos a la Iglesia Unida de Cristo a estudiar los medios donde la educación pueda señalar las necesidades de nuestro tiempo y las esperanzas y posibilidades del futuro.
Hacemos un llamado a la Iglesia a observar los talentos que hay en las congregaciones como escuela de fe y a mantener y apoyar su energía vital.
Otros medios incluyen los hogares, comunidad parroquial, escuelas; así como lugares de trabajo, lugares de belleza natural y artística y de acción social. Nuevos tiempos y medios, pueden proveer oportunidades de enseñanza-aprendizaje en la fe cristiana.
Al invitarles, afirmamos:
Que existen muchos medios para educar integradamente; y variedad de oportunidades para que el Espíritu de Dios se mueva y transforme.
Atender seriamente, la amalgama de medios (lugares, circunstancias) a través de los cuales la gente vive, enseña y aprende.
Interrogantes constantes y urgentes surgirán sobre la existencia humana en los diferentes medios.
Nuevas disposiciones para la enseñanza-aprendizaje llevarán a respuestas educativas creativas.
Educación a través de la Vida
El aprendizaje es importante a través de la vida. Invitamos a la Iglesia Unida de Cristo a unirse a nosotros y a nosotras en el que hacer educativo necesario que lleve a las personas a vivir en el amor de Cristo y a discernir el discipulado en sus vidas.
Al hacer ésto, afirmamos:
La educación de los seguidores y seguidoras de Jesucristo, es un proceso a través del cual nuestras vidas se capacitan y se abren al presente y futuro dominio de Dios, al apoyar y promover el discipulado y al enriquecer la vida personal y social.
El aprendizaje ocurre en una variedad de formas: estudio y reflexión, en acción y meditación, en práctica y disciplina, en la adoración y los sacramentos, en oración y celebración.
Las realidades y necesidades de la vida, son momentos para aprender, p.e., al lidiar con las crisis sociales y personales de la vida; al luchar con problemas morales; al investigar el significado de la vocación cristiana, respaldar el impacto científico, tecnológico, económico y político de los individuos y naciones, y al reconocer y al oponernos a toda injusticia.
Un Llamado al Diálogo
Esta visión emergente y de reforma continua de la misión educativa de la Iglesia Unida de Cristo, requiere la imaginación y creatividad de todos y todas en la Iglesia Unida de Cristo y sus colegas en la educación. Puede haber reforma si proviene del sentido de necesidad y posibilidad. Por tanto, llamamos a un diálogo, así como vamos en pos de la visión.
Justice and Witness Ministries responds to the call of Christ through public witness, policy advocacy, issue education, and grassroots empowerment to build a more just, compassionate and inclusive world. The UCC Justice and Peace Action Network (JPANet) is our denomination’s grassroots advocacy network composed of individual members and local UCC congregations across the country. Our work is grounded in General Synod resolutions, and formed by a biblical understanding of prophetic ministry.
Join the network and you will start recieving weekly action alerts, like the ones below.
Justice for Arthur Tyler on Death Row
Arthur Tyler is an innocent man on Death Row. Please help!
Week of Witness for Troy Davis
Please join Amnesty International and the NAACP for a week of witness for Troy Davis, to be held June 19-26.
a reading list of best books
Order from United Church of Christ Resources by calling 800-325-7061.
Barna, George. How to Increase Giving in Your Church. Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 1997. To order call 800-446-7735 and ask for trade paperbacks.
Barrett, Wayne C. The Church Finance Idea Book: Hundreds of Proven Ideas for Funding Your Ministry. Nashville: Discipleship Resources, 1995. To order call 800-685-4370.
Bell, Perry. Effective Approaches to Growth and Stewardship in the Small Church, Congregations. September/October 1994. Vol. XX, No. 5, page 9f. An Alban Institute Publication. To order call 800-486-1318, ext. 4.
Borreson, Glenn L. A Step at a Time: Growing Givers through Stewardship Letters. Lima, Ohio: CSS Pub., 2001.
Burkett, Larry. Giving & Tithing. Chicago: Moody Press, 1991.
Callahan, Kennon L. Giving and Stewardship in an Effective Church: A Guide for Every Member. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.
Coles, Romand. Rethinking Generosity: Critical Theory and the Politics of Caritas. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997. (excellent but technical)
Chaves, Mark, and Sharon L. Miller, editors, Financing American Religion. Walnut Creek, California: Altamira Press, A Division of Sage Publications, Inc., 1999. *
de Soto, Hernando. The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
Dick, Dan R. Revolutionizing Christian Stewardship for the 21st Century: Lessons from Copernicus. Nashville: Discipleship Resources, 1997. To order call 800-685-4370.
Dunham, Laura. Graceful Living: Your Faith, Values, and Money in Changing Times. Grand Rapids: RCA (Reformed Church in America) Distribution Center, 2002. Replaces Christians Doing Financial Planning (1984). To order call 800-968-7221.
Durall, Michael. Creating Congregations of Generous People. An Alban Institute Publication, 1999. To order call 800-486-1318, ext. 4.
Foster, Richard J. Money, Sex, and Power: The Challenge of the Disciplined Life. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985.
Godfrey, Neale S., Caroline Edwards. Money Doesn't Grow on Trees: A Parent's Guide to Raising Financially Responsible Children. New York: Simon & Schuster?Trade Paperbacks, 1993.
with Tad Richards. A Penny Saved: Teaching Your Children the Value and Life Skills They Will Need to Live in the Real World. New York: Simon & Schuster? Trade Paperbacks, 1996.
Grimm, Eugene, edited by Herb Miller. Generous People: How to Encourage Vital Stewardship. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1994.
Hacker, Andrew. Money: Who Has How Much and Why. New York: Simon & Schuster/ A Touchstone Book, 1997.
Hargus, Clark. Stewardship in the Small Membership Congregation (now includes two previously separate pieces, "Biblical Principles of Stewardship", with a "flexible worksheet", and "Faithful-Hopeful-Loving: A Three-Week Stewardship Program". Indianapolis: Ecumenical Center for Stewardship Studies (now Ecumenical Stewardship Center), 2000. To order call 800-835-5671.
Hadaway, Kirk. Behold, I Do a New Thing: Transforming Communities of Faith. Cleveland: The Pilgrim Press, 2001. *
Hammond, Dawn. A Handbook for Church Treasurers and Trustees. Massachusetts Conference of the United Church of Christ, 1998. Available on the Massachusetts Conference web site www.macucc.org., or by calling 508-875-5233.
Hinze, Donald W. To Give and Give Again: A Christian Imperative for Generosity. New York: The Pilgrim Press, 1990.
Hoge, Dean, and Patrick McNamara, Charles Zech. Plain Talk About Churches and Money. An Alban Institute Publication, 1997. * To order call 800-486-1318, ext. 4.
Hoge, Dean R., and Charles Zech, Patrick McNamara, Michael J. Donahue. Money Matters: Personal Giving in American Churches. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.
Joiner, Donald W., and Norma Wimberly. The Abingdon Guide to Funding Ministry: An Innovative Sourcebook for Pastors and Church Leaders. Volumes 1, 2, 3. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1995, 1996, 1997.
Klainer, Pamela York. How Much is Enough? Harness the Power of Your Money Story and Change Your Life. New York: Basic Books, 2001.
Levan, Christopher. Living in the Maybe: A Steward Confronts the Spirit of Fundamentalism. Manlius, New York: REV/Rose Publishing, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1998.
McFague, Sally. Life Abundant: Rethinking Theology and Economy for a Planet in Peril. Minneapolis: Augsburg/Fortess Press, 2000.
Mead, Lorin B. Financial Meltdown in the Mainline? An Alban Institute Publication. To order call 800-486-1318, ext. 4.
Meeks, M. Douglas. God the Economist: The Doctrine of God and Political Economy. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1989.
Moore, R. Laurence. Selling God: American Religion in the Marketplace of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Needleman, Jacob. Money and the Meaning of Life. New York: Doubleday, 1991.
Otfinoski, Steve, with Kelly Kennedy (illustrator). The Kid's Guide to Money: Earning It, Saving It, Spending It, Growing It, Sharing It. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1996.
Rodin, R. Scott. Stewards in the Kingdom: A Theology of Life in All Its Fullness. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 2000.
Roehlkepartain, Eugene C., and Elanah Delyah Naftali, Laura Musegades. Growing Up Generous: Engaging Youth in Giving and Serving. An Alban Institute Publication, 2001. To order call 800-486-1318, ext. 4.
Ronsvalle, John L., and Sylvia Ronsvalle. Behind the Stained Glass Windows: Money Dynamics in the Church. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1996. Out of print; available in seminary libraries, or at www.bakerbooks.com, phone 606-957-3110.
with U. Milo Kaufmann. At Ease: Discussing Money and Values in Small Groups. An Alban Institute Publication, 1998. To order call 800-486-1318, ext. 4.
Schwarzentraub, Betsy. Afire with God: Spirit-ed Stewardship for a New Century. Nashville, Tenn.: Discipleship Resources, 2000.
Smith, Kenwyn K. MANNA In the Wilderness of AIDS: Ten Lessons in Abundance. Cleveland: The Pilgrim Press, 2002. *
Vallet, Ronald E., and Charles E. Zech. The Mainline Church's Funding Crisis: Issues and Possibilities. Manlius, New York: REV/Rose Publishing, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995.
Webb, Stephen H. The Gifting God: A Trinitarian Ethics of Excess. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. (excellent but technical)
Wuthnow, Robert. The Crisis in the Churches: Spiritual Malaise, Fiscal Woe. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. *
Unknown. God and Mammon in America. New York: Free Press, 1994.
Order these resources from UCC Resources or calling 800-325-7061
Annual Stewardship Theme Materials
Newly designed every year, these colorful, coordinated materials based on scripture can greatly help your congregation with its annual stewardship effort. Materials include full-color poster, four motivational bulletin inserts (including giving chart), worship folder, letterhead and envelope, note card, and commitment cards. Check out these NEW materials: 2019 Stewardship Theme Materials & Supplemental Campaign Resources
Not Your Parent's Offering Plate: A New Vision for Financial Stewardship, a completely revised edition of J. Clif Christopher’s classic. Written with the needs of pastors and stewardship teams in mind, Not Your Parents’' Offering Plate provides immediate, practical guidance to all who seek to help God’s people be better stewards of their resources.
Stewardship for Vital Congregations, by Anthony B. Robinson Theologically and biblically informed, it offers particular strategies and "how-to's" relating to money and giving. Stewardship for Vital Congregations includes questions for reflection, discussion, and action in each chapter.
Are You Ready to Talk about Money in Your Church? is a humorous quiz that takes a light approach to the serious subject of money. A great ice-breaker for stewardship conversations! Format is small, 8-page pamphlet, suitable for distribution in pews or to groups. From the Stillspeaking Writers' Group.
The Gratitude Path: Leading Your Church to Generosity, by Kent Millard. A new approach for local church giving that is accessible, achievable, and effective.The Gratitude Path is a five-session study designed for use by churches, leadership teams, and small groups. This step-by-step guide helps congregations grow in generosity by focusing on gratitude for God's blessings.
Local Church Planned Giving Manual, 4th edition. From wills seminars to church endowments and more, you and your church can explore theological, rational, and hands-on worksheets enhancing your ministry through the stewardship of planned giving.
Funding Your Future: A Capital Campaign Manual from the United Church of Christ
A capital or major fund campaign can be the greatest faith-raising experience in the life of your church!The more challenging the campaign goal, the the more heightened the experience for your congregation.
God's Gifts, My Gifts
Teaches that God is the source of who we are and what we have, and is our model for being generous and faithful. Elementary-age children will have fun in class or at home using these five colorful and snappy foldout sheets with individual and group activities, including scriptural texts and prayers to reinforce the church; personal decisions, loving God, self, and others. Use for confirmation and new member classes. Set includes five active lessons: Share Love With Your Offering (available as a single sheet for $.75 each), Seek God with Your Whole Heart, Rooted in Love, Love is the Greatest, Dare 2BU. Set of all five activity sheets plus stickers: 1-10 sets, $5.00 each; 11-25 sets, $4.50 each; 26 or more sets, $4.00 each.
A Stewardship Resource for the Local Church
This resource looks at ways to understand and approach money and mission realistically, given the changing conditions in congregations of the United Church of Christ today. Intended for use by lay leaders as well as clergy, it includes the theological background on the motivation for giving, as well as four programmatic approaches to fundraising in the church.
The Gifting God
This compact, 5-session group study based closely on the Bible will break open the subject of giving for everyone-no matter how much or how little they are currently giving. Excellent for small groups, for ysing one session at a time with committees (especially stewardship or finance committees, and trustees). Also very effective as a personal Bible study/devotion. Available in print or as downloadable PDF, $1.50 each.
What Scripture Says about Giving
This brief brochure for distribution to all church members looks at the question of how much to give to the work of the church and why. Also available in Spanish. $3.00/50.
The Church has always understood itself to be an extension of Jesus Christ's ministry in the world. The diakonia of the early church — the ministry of healing, service, care, compassion and hospitality— served the needy neighbor in Christ. For more than thirty-five years the General Synod of the United Church of Christ has advocated for health care as a right and a priority for all people.
Traci Blackmon among clergy arrested in D.C. denouncing 'sinful and immoral' health care reform
Read more via UC News and watch video clip of Rev. Blackmon's remarks outside Senator Mitch McConnell's office, prior to her arrest.
UCC Perspectives on Efforts to Repeal and Replace the ACA
Ten priorities for a faithful health care system
As people of faith, we believe that any change, repeal, or repair of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) must include comprehensive health care legislation in a single bill that
meets these ten priorities for a faithful health care system. These priorities arise from a shared commitment to a faith-inspired moral vision of a health care system that offers health, wholeness, and human dignity for all.
The scriptures of the Abrahamic traditions of Christians, Jews, and Muslims, as well as the sacred teachings of other faiths, understand that addressing the general welfare of the nation includes giving particular attention to people experiencing poverty or sickness. For their sake and for the common good, we must continue to make progress toward a U.S. health care system that is inclusive, equitable, affordable, accountable, and accessible for all.
- Preserve the coverage gains made by the ACA and further decrease the number of Americans without health insurance.
- Preserve the funding for Medicaid expansion and expand the program in all states.
- Ensure that reasonable revenue is in the federal budget to pay for health care for all.
- Uphold the purpose of Medicaid by refraining from structural changes to how the program is funded. Changing the funding structure to a block grant or per capita cap would impose rigid limits on the amount of federal money available to states for Medicaid, endangering the health and well-being of children, older adults, people with disabilities, and their families.
- Ensure that insurance premiums and cost sharing are truly affordable to all. Policies to improve affordability must prioritize those with the greatest need, not those with the means to put money in a health savings account or wait for tax deductions.
- Maintain health services and benefits currently provided by the ACA including access to essential medicines, mental health services, preventive services, pre-natal services, and other key services necessary to maintain health.
- Maintain guaranteed issue for those with pre-existing conditions. Do not quarantine the millions of Americans with pre-
existing conditions in unaffordable high risk insurance pools.
- Prevent insurance companies from discriminating against women, the elderly, and people in poverty.
- Create effective mechanisms of accountability for insurance companies and not allow them to have annual or lifetime caps on expenditures.
- Continue to allow children under the age of 26 to be covered by their parents’ insurance.
Because of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), many Americans now have health care insurance that will assist them in gaining access to health services - a great first step. Unfortunately, many of those who have insurance face access challenges in finding, locating, and getting to a health provider to acquire appropriate care from the health care system in a timely manner.
Why are people struggling to attain quality care? Learn more about health Equity.
The UCC Collegium of Officers invites and encourages all conferences, associations and congregations to participate and engage in dialogue and discussion using the Just Eating Curriculum.
This wonderful curriculum calls us to integrate the commitments and practices of our faith into the way we eat. We think it will be a great enhancement to your work around food justice and sustainability issues. Learn more.
UCC Faith Community Nurse Network
The UCC Faith Community Nurse Network, formerly the Parish Nurse Network, aims to promote health ministry and parish nursing in congregations and communities, as the visible presence and voice of parish nurses in the United Church of Christ. Learn more and join the network.
In 1932—while many Americans were reacting to reports of atrocities committed by Japanese forces in China—two leading Protestant theologians debated in the pages of Christian Century whether U.S. military intervention in the conflict would be a "just" or "unjust" war. The theologians were H. Richard Niebuhr of Yale University and his brother, Reinhold Niebuhr of Union Theological Seminary in New York. Both were members of the Evangelical and Reformed Church, one of the UCC's antecedent denominations, and both influenced many members of the first and second generations of UCC pastors who studied under them.
The rising tide of conflict in Asia and Hitler's imminent seizure of power in Germany were stirring renewed fears of war, and motivated both men to reexamine Christian traditions regarding war and its moral consequences. We present these papers because they are relevant to the international debate over terrorism and the use of armed force in self-defense.
H. Richard Niebuhr argued for a principled "inactivity" based on radical trust in God. He wrote: "The inactivity of radical Christianity is not the inactivity of those who call evil good; it is the inaction of those who do not judge their neighbors because they cannot fool themselves into a sense of superior righteousness. ... It is not the inactivity of the noncombatant, for it knows that there are no noncombatants, that everyone is involved, that China is being crucified ... by our sins and those of the whole world. It is not the inactivity of the merciless, for works of mercy must be performed though they are only palliates to ease present pain while the process of healing depends on deeper, more actual and urgent forces." But Reinhold Niebuhr disagreed: "Love may qualify the social struggle of history but it will never abolish it, and those who make the attempt to bring society under the dominion of perfect love will die on the cross. And those who behold the cross are quire right in seeing it as a revelation of the divine, of what man ought to be cannot be, at least not so long as he is enmeshed in the processes of history."
Also linked from this page is the 1985 General Synod pronouncement on "Just Peace"—an alternative to traditional "Just War" doctrine—and UCC theologian Susan Brooks Thistlethwaite on the relevance of the Just War tradition to the war against Iraq.
The UCC Office of General Ministries, which sponsors this page, thanks the Rev. John Deckenback, Conference Minister of the Central Atlantic Conference, and his staff who provided us with the original text of this debate. We also thank you for your congregation's financial contribution to Our Church's Wider Mission, which makes this service possible.
Radical trust in God
H. Richard Niebuhr argues that radical obedience to God requires Christian nonviolence. Any other response would mean distrust in God and God's promises.
In a fallen world, Reinhold Niebuhr replies, Christians cannot act as if the reign of God has already been established, and must sometimes use force to protect the innocent.
A final word
In a letter to the editors of Christian Century, H. Richard Niebuhr sums up the debate.
Turning to Tradition
In making moral judgments about the war in Iraq, says UCC theologian Susan Brooks Thistlethwaite, Christians can find help from a "1,500-year-old tradition."
The "Just Peace" doctrine commended by the UCC's General Synod in 1985 is distinct both from "just war" theory and traditional Christian pacifism.
General Synod pronouncement and proposal for action on the United Church of Christ as a 'Just Peace Church'
85-GS-50 VOTED: The Fifteenth General Synod adopts the pronouncement "Affirming the United Church of Christ as a Just Peace Church."
Affirms the United Church of Christ to be a Just Peace Church and defines Just Peace as the interrelation of friendship, justice, and common security from violence. Places the United Church of Christ General Synod in opposition to the institution of war.
The Thirteenth General Synod called upon the United Church of Christ to become a Peace Church and the Fourteenth General Synod asked a Peace Theology Development Team to recommend to the Fifteenth General Synod theology, policy, and structure for enabling the United Church of Christ to be a peacemaking church. This pronouncement is based on insights from all three of the historic approaches of Christians to issues of war and peace—pacifism, just war, and crusade—but attempts to move beyond these traditions to an understanding rooted in the vision of shalom—linking peace and justice. Since Just War criterion itself now rules out war under modern conditions, it is imperative to move beyond Just War thinking to a theology of a Just Peace.
Biblical and theological foundations
A Just Peace is grounded in God's activity in creation. Creation shows the desire of God to sustain the world and not destroy. The creation anticipates what is to come: the history-long relationship between God and humanity and the coming vision of shalom.
Just Peace is grounded in covenant relationship. God creates and calls us into covenant, God's gift of friendship: "I will make a covenant of peace with them; it shall be an everlasting covenant with them; and I will bless them and multiply them, and will set my sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore" (Ezekiel 37:26). When God's abiding presence is embraced, human well-being results, or Shalom, which can be translated as Just Peace.
A Just Peace is grounded in the reconciling activity of Jesus Christ. Human sin is the rejection of the covenant of friendship with God and one another and the creation and perpetuation of structures of evil. Through God's own suffering love in the cross, the power of these structures has been broken and the possibility for relationship restored.
A Just Peace is grounded in the presence of the Holy Spirit. God sends the Holy Spirit to continue the struggle to overcome the powers ranged against human bonding. Thus, our hope for a Just Peace does not rest on human efforts alone, but on God's promise that we will "have life and have it abundantly" (John 10:10).
A Just Peace is grounded in the community of reconciliation: the Just Peace Church. Jesus, who is our peace (Ephesians 2:14), performed signs of forgiveness and healing and made manifest that God's reign is for those who are in need. The church is a continuation of that servant manifestation. As a Just Peace Church, we embody a Christ fully engaged in human events. The church is thus a real countervailing power to those forces that divide, that perpetuate human enmity and injustice, and that destroy.
Just Peace is grounded in hope. Shalom is the vision that pulls all creation toward a time when weapons are swept off the earth and all creatures lie down together without fear; where all have their own fig tree and dwell secure from want. As Christians, we offer this conviction to the world: Peace is possible.
Statement of Christian conviction
A. The Fifteenth General Synod affirms a Just Peace as the presence and interrelation of friendship, justice and common security from violence. The General Synod affirms the following as marks of a Just Peace theology:
Peace is possible. A Just Peace is a basic gift of God and is the force and vision moving human history. The meaning of a Just Peace and God's activity in human history, especially the life and witness of Jesus, is understood through the Bible, church history and the voices of the oppressed and those in the struggle for justice and peace. Nonviolent conflict is a normal and healthy reflection of diversity; working through conflict constructively should lead to growth of both individuals and nations.
Nonviolence is a Christian response to conflict shown to us by Jesus. We have barely begun to explore this little known process of reconciliation. Violence can and must be minimized, even eliminated in most situations. However, because evil and violence are embedded in human nature and institutions, they will remain present in some form. War can and must be eliminated.
The State should be based upon participatory consent and should be primarily responsible for developing justice and well-being, enforcing law, and minimizing violence in the process.
International structures of friendship, justice, and common security from violence are necessary and possible at this point in history in order to eliminate the institution of war and move toward a Just Peace. Unexpected initiatives of friendship and reconciliation can transform interpersonal and international relationships, and are essential to restoring community.
B. The Fifteenth General Synod affirms the United Church of Christ as a Just Peace Church. The General Synod affirms the following as marks of a Just Peace Church, calling upon each local church to become:
A community of hope, believing a Just Peace is possible, working toward this end, and communicating to the larger world the excitement and possibility of a Just Peace.
A community of worship and celebration, centering its identity in justice and peacemaking and the Good News of peace that is Jesus Christ.
A community of biblical and theological reflection, studying the Scriptures, the Christian story, and the working of the Spirit in the struggle against injustice and oppression.
A community of spiritual nurture and support, loving one another and giving one another strength in the struggle for a Just Peace.
A community of honest and open conflict, a zone of freedom where differences may be expressed, explored, and worked through in mutual understanding and growth.
A community of empowerment, renewing and training people for making peace/doing justice.
A community of financial support, developing programs and institutions for a Just Peace.
A community of solidarity with the poor, seeking to be present in places of oppression, poverty, and violence, and standing with the oppressed in the struggle to resist and change this evil.
A community of loyalty to God and to the whole human community over any nation or rival idolatry.
A community that recognizes no enemies, willing to risk and be vulnerable, willing to take surprising initiatives to transform situations of enmity. A community of repentance, confessing its own guilt and involvement in structural injustice and violence, ready to acknowledge its entanglement in evil, seeking to turn toward new life.
A community of resistance, standing against social structures comfortable with violence and injustice.
A community of sacrifice and commitment, ready to go the extra mile, and then another mile, in the search for justice and peace.
A community of political and social engagement, in regular dialogue with the political order, participating in peace and justice advocacy networks, witnessing to a Just Peace in the community and in the nation, joining the social and political struggle to implement a Just Peace.
C. The Fifteenth General Synod affirms friendship as essential to a Just Peace.
1. We affirm the unity of the whole human community and oppose any use of nationalism to divide this covenant of friendship.
2. We reject all labeling of others as enemies and the creation of institutions that perpetuate enemy relations.
3. We affirm diversity among peoples and nations and the growth and change that can emerge from the interchange of differing value systems, ideologies, religions and political and economic systems.
4. We affirm nonviolent conflict as inevitable and valuable, an expression of diversity and essential to healthy relationships among people and nations.
5. We affirm all nations developing global community and interchange, including:
a. freedom of travel,
b. free exchange of ideas and open dialogue,
c. scientific, cultural, and religious exchanges,
d. public education that portrays other nations fairly, breaking down enemy stereotypes and images, and
e. knowledge of foreign languages.
D. The Fifteenth General Synod affirms justice as essential to a Just Peace.
1. We affirm all nations working together to insure that people everywhere will be able to meet their basic needs, including the right of every person to:
a. food and clean water,
b. adequate health care,
c. decent housing,
d. meaningful employment,
e. basic education,
f. participation in community decision-making and the political process,
g. freedom of worship and religious expression,
h. protection from torture, and
i. protection of rights without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, or national or social origin.
2. We affirm the establishment of a more just international order in which:
a. trade barriers, tariffs, and debt burdens do not work against the interests of poor people, and developing nations,
b. poor nations have a greater share in the policies and management of global economic institutions.
3. We affirm economic policies that target aid to the most needy: the rural poor, women, nations with poor natural resources or structural problems, and the poor within each nation.
4. We affirm economic policies that will further the interests of the poor within each nation:
a. promoting popular participation,
b. empowering the poor to make effective demand on social systems,
c. encouraging decentralization and greater community control,
d. providing for the participation of women in development,
e. redistributing existing assets, including land, and distributing more equitably future benefits of growth,
f. reducing current concentrations of economic and political power, and
g. providing for self-reliant development, particularly in food production.
5. We affirm nations transferring funds from military expenditures into programs that will aid the poor and developing strategies of converting military industries to Just Peace industries.
6. We oppose the injustices resulting from the development of national security states that currently repress the poor in organizing society against an external enemy.
7. We affirm a free and open press within each nation, without hindrance from government.
E. The Fifteenth General Synod affirms common security from violence as essential to a Just Peace.
1. We affirm that national security includes four interrelated components:
a. provision for general well-being,
b. cultivation of justice,
c. provision for defense of a nation, and
d. creation of political atmosphere and structure in which a Just Peace can flourish and the risk of war is diminished or eliminated.
2. We affirm the right and obligation of governments to use civil authority to prevent lawlessness and protect human rights. Such force must not be excessive and must always be in the context of the primary responsibility of the state in creating social justice and promoting human welfare. Any use of force must be based in the participatory consent of the people.
3. We affirm that war must be eliminated as an instrument of national policy and the global economy must be more just. To meet these goals, international institutions must be strengthened.
4. We affirm our support for the United Nations, which should be strengthened developing the following:
a. more authority in disputes among countries,
b. peacekeeping forces, including a permanent force of at least 5000, able to police border disputes and intervene when called to do so by the U.N.,
c. peacemaking teams, trained in mediation, conflict intervention, and conflict resolution,
d. support for international peace academies,
e. a global satellite surveillance system to provide military intelligence to the common community,
f. international agreements to limit military establishments and the international arms trade,
g. an international ban on the development, testing, use, and possession of nuclear and bio-chemical weapons of mass destruction, and
h. an international ban on all weapons in space and all national development of space-based defense systems and Strategic Defense Initiatives.
5. We affirm our support for the International Court of Justice and for the strengthening of international law, including:
a. the Law of the Sea Treaty,
b. universal ratification of the International Covenants and Conventions which seek to implement the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and
c. recognition of the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice and removal of restrictions, such as the Connally Amendment, which impair the Court's effective functioning.
6. We reject any use or threat to use weapons and forces of mass destruction and any doctrine of deterrence based primarily on using such weapons. We also reject unilateral, full-scale disarmament as a currently accepted path out of the present international dilemma. We affirm the development of new policies of common security, using a combination of negotiated agreements, new international institutions and institutional power, nonviolent strategies, unilateral initiatives to lessen tensions, and new policies that will make the global economy more just.
7. We affirm the mutual and verifiable freeze on the testing, production, and deployment of nuclear weapons as the most important step in breaking the escalating dynamics of the arms race and call upon the United States, the U.S.S.R., and other nations to take unilateral initiatives toward implementing such a freeze, contingent on the other side responding, until such time as a comprehensive freeze can be negotiated.
8. We declare our opposition to all weapons of mass destruction. All nations should:
a. declare that they will never use such weapons,
b. cease immediately the testing, production, and deployment of nuclear weapons,
c. begin dismantling these arsenals, and
d. while the process of dismantling is going on, negotiate comprehensive treaties banning all such future weapons by any nation.
9. We declare our opposition to war, violence, and terrorism. All nations should:
a. declare that they will never attack another nation,
b. make unilateral initiatives toward dismantling their military arsenals, calling on other nations to reciprocate, and
c. develop mechanisms for international law, international peacekeeping, and international conflict resolution.
Proposal for action on organizing the United Church of Christ as a Just Peace church
85-GS-51 VOTED: The Fifteenth General Synod adopts the Proposal for Action "Organizing the United Church of Christ as a Just Peace Church."
Calls upon churches to organize themselves so as to be effective instruments of God's Just Peace. Calls for organizing the United Church of Christ regionally and nationally for more effective Just Peace witness. Calls for a two-year Just Peace offering and effective long-range funding.
This Proposal for Action builds on the proposed pronouncement, also submitted to the Fifteenth General Synod, "Affirming the United Church of Christ as a Just Peace Church." Like the pronouncement, the Proposal for Action has been developed in response to the request of the Fourteenth General Synod to recommend theology, policy, and structure for enabling the United Church of Christ to be a peace-making church.
The Fifteenth General Synod calls on all in the United Church of Christ to recognize that the creating of a Just Peace is central to their identity as Christians and to their Baptism into the Christian community.
A. Call To Local Churches
The Fifteenth General Synod calls on local churches to organize their common life so as to make a difference in the achieving of a Just Peace and the ending of the institution of war.
The Fifteenth General Synod calls for the development of four key components within local churches: spiritual development, Just Peace education, political advocacy, and community witness.
1. We call all local churches to the inward journey of spiritual nurture: prayer for a Just Peace, study of the Scriptures, theological reflection upon the work of the Holy Spirit, and celebration and worship that center the life of the community in the power and reality of the God who creates a Just Peace. We call for the development of Christian community that nurtures and supports members in the search for a Just Peace. We commend to all local churches the use of the World Peace Prayer, using the example of the Benedictine Sisters who pray this specific prayer each day at 12 noon:
Lead me/us from death to life,
from falsehood to truth.
Lead me/us from despair to hope,
from fear to trust.
Lead me/us from hate to love,
from war to peace.
Let peace fill our hearts,our
world, our universe.
2. We call all local churches to the inward journey of education. Knowing that there are no easy answers to the creating of a Just Peace, we call for churches to establish the climate where all points of view can be respected and all honest feelings and opinions shared in the search for new answers and directions. We call for a steady program of Just Peace education and a steady flow of information on Just Peace issues into the life of the congregation.
3. We call all local churches to the outward journey of political witness, enabling all members to join the search for the politics of a Just Peace. Just Peace is both a religious concept and a political concept, and participation in the political arena is essential. We call for each church to appoint a contact person for the United Church of Christ Peace Advocacy and Hunger/Economic Justice Networks to follow closely those political issues most critical to the development of a Just Peace and to alert members of the local church when it is most appropriate to write or contact their Senators and Representatives.
4. We call all local churches to the outward journey of community witness. We call for local churches to make their convictions known in their communities through public forums, media, and presence in the public arena. We call for local churches to help shape public opinion and the climate in which the issues of a Just Peace are shaped. We call for churches to explore with military industries the opportunities for conversion into Just Peace industries. We call for evangelistic outreach, inviting others to join in the search for a Just Peace.
Because the times are so critical, we call for extraordinary witness as well as ordinary political involvement to break the power of the structural evils that prevent a Just Peace. We call upon local churches to be understanding and even supportive of persons who out of individual conscience take the responsibility for such nonviolent extraordinary witness. Examples of such witness might include: becoming a conscientious objector to war; refusing acceptance of employment with any project related to nuclear and biochemical weapons and warfare; refusing any and all assignments to use weapons of mass destruction as a member of the military; withholding tax money in protest of the excessively militaristic policies of our government;and engaging in acts of non- violent civil disobedience, willingly going to jail to call attention to specific outrages.
B. Call to Conferences and National Bodies
The Fifteenth General Synod calls upon Conferences and national bodies of the United Church of Christ to organize their common life so as to make a difference in the achieving of a Just Peace and the ending of the institution of war.
The Fifteenth General Synod calls for the development of four key components in developing the United Church of Christ so that it can make a real difference over the next years: regional centers, Washington advocacy, international presence, and national programs.
1. We call upon Conferences to develop regional centers able to link local churches into effective regional and national strategies. A variety of options are possible at the Association and Conference levels:
The development of regional United Church of Christ peace centers that resource local groups through educational, organizational, advocacy, and funding efforts;
The development of ecumenical regional Just Peace centers, in partnership with other denominations;
The funding of part-time, contract, or full-time Just Peace staff at the Association or Conference; and
The funding of ecumenical peace staff in states or metropolitan areas.
2. We call for the strengthening of our advocacy work in Washington, D.C., with more funding to develop the capacity of the United Church of Christ to make its witness known in the national political arena, to expand its capacity for policy analysis, to increase its presence on Capitol Hill in shaping legislation, to develop stronger communication links with churches around the country to share political developments and urge action, and to build coalitions.
3. We call upon the United Church of Christ Board for World Ministries to explore and develop new models of peace and justice ministries globally to address particular situations of injustice, oppression, and real or potential violence, and to develop communication links between Christians in these critical situations and Christians in the United States, developing global partnership and global awareness in the search for a Just Peace.
4. We call upon all national bodies to continue to develop effective programs of advocacy, empowerment, and education. We call for more resources to develop national strategies of advocacy and action to increase the witness of the United Church of Christ for a Just Peace. We call for the Office for Church in Society to facilitate the coordination of this work.
Churches, Conferences, and national bodies, including the Office for Church in Society, the Executive Council, the United Church Board for World Ministries, and the Stewardship Council, have been requested in this Call to Action to respond to various directions. These bodies are responsible for developing the strategies and programs to fulfill the goals outlined here.
Note: Implementation of this Proposal for action is subject to the availability of funds.
"To offer sexuality education in a congregation is to acknowledge that human sexuality is simply too important too beautiful and too potentially dangerous to be ignored in a religious community." - Rev. Lena Breen, Mt. Vernon, WA
We live in a culture that is deeply conflicted about sexuality.
Our religious heritage compels and guides us in creating a safe environment where people can come to understand and respond to the challenges facing them as sexual beings. As faith communities, we promote justice for all people and we affirm the dignity of every individual, the importance of personal responsibility, and the essential interdependence of all peoples.
The United Church of Christ holds that sexuality is a God-given gift, and offers the following resources:
- Our Whole Lives/Sexuality and Our Faith: Our Whole Lives is a series of sexuality education curricula for six age groups: grades K-1, grades 4-6, grades 7-9, grades 10-12, young adult, and adult. The program and its religious companion books, Sexuality and Our Faith, provide an opportunity for children, youth, and adults to learn about sexuality in the affirming and supportive setting of our faith communities. Learn more.
- Created In God’s Image: a ten-week program for adults that focuses on integrating sexuality into the ministry and mission of the church. Learn More.
- Affirming Persons, Saving Lives: the comprehensive HIV and AIDS awareness and prevention education curriculum published by the United Church of Christ. Learn more.
This special supplement to the Theology Page is a resource for congregations and seminaries using the 1648 Cambridge Platform as a tool for study in U.S. Christian history and polity. The Cambridge Platform was a transforming event in the life of 17th-century Congregationalism and is relevant to serious issues that concern all Christian churches today. In a global church that is becoming increasingly congregational, non-hierarchical and fragmented by culture wars, how do churches maintain bonds of love with each other? How can we resolve the tensions between unity and freedom, tradition and modernity, the integrity of community and the rights of the individual?
Papers at the Cambridge Platform 350th Anniversary Conference in Cambridge, Mass., explored these issues in depth. We are able to invite you to this feast of theological reflection through the courtesy of the Congregational Library in Boston, which granted us permission to reprint the conference papers. Also included are six audio files of an unprecedented conversation between leaders of the four communions that can claim descent from the Cambridge Platform—the Unitarian Universalist Association, the United Church of Christ, the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches and the Conservative Congregational Christian Conference. These groups represent the left, center and right of the American religious spectrum, and show how a defining moment 350 years in the past can produce strikingly different results. The audiotape was provided through the courtesy of the First Church in Cambridge, United Church of Christ. Papers are linked below.
Elizabeth C. Nordbeck writes that the heritage of the Cambridge Platform "heritage is immensely powerful, immensely compelling and still capable of shaping the present and future."
Social and Spiritual Roots
Francis J. Bremer explores the Platform's roots in the social and spiritual values of New England's Puritan community.
Relevance for Today
Charles E. Hambrick-Stowe asks what the Platform can teach divided and often warring churches in the 21st Century.
Looking Back, Forward
Harvard University chaplain Peter Gomes preaches the concluding sermon at Harvard's Chapel.
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