Thirteenth Sunday in Ordinary Time Year C
Sixth Sunday after Pentecost - Proper 8
2 Kings 2:1-2, 6-14 with Psalm 77:1-2, 11-20 or
1 Kings 19:15-16,19-21 with Psalm 16
Galatians 5:1, 13-25
2 Kings 2:1-2, 6-14
Pick Up the Mantle
by Kathryn Matthews Huey
Of course, there are prophets, and then there are prophets. Most of us are familiar with the big names, like Jeremiah, Isaiah, Ezekiel, and even with some of the "minor" prophets like Amos and Micah (they're called "minor" because their books are shorter, not because they're less important). And then there's the great prophet himself, Moses, in whose footsteps, one way or another, just about every prophet in the Old Testament wants to walk. Elijah and Elisha, who don't have a book of the Bible named after them – they belong to "the nonwriting prophets" – are no exception, and this story about them does a good job of ringing the memory bells of just about anyone who's heard the stories about Moses, whether he was parting the Red Sea, or traveling a long way to the River Jordan, or turning his leadership over to his successor, Joshua.
Walter Brueggemann explains why these somewhat odd (to use a favorite Brueggemann term) stories about Elijah and Elisha, the most familiar names among the nonwriting prophets, are important in the larger scheme of things. He first describes "The Great Tradition," with all those stories so important in the life of faith, like creation, exodus, time in the wilderness, the Sinai experience, the Promised Land, and so on. Next to those grand stories he places the "little stories" that provide "memories that helped shape the world and situate Israel in it" (Reverberations of Faith). This week's passage does more than simply recall Moses parting the Red Sea or recognizing his successor: Brueggemann says that it helps us to see the power in those "little" people, like dusty, wandering prophets who live outside the court of the king and answer to a very different authority. While history, even in the Bible, may provide long lists of rulers, Brueggemann says that texts like this one remind us that there is more to the story, down below the high and mighty and in defiance of what they may dictate as reality (Testimony to Otherwise: The Witness of Elijah and Elisha).
Elijah and Elisha were working in difficult times for Israel, the northern kingdom, about nine centuries before Jesus. The Omri dynasty, of which Ahab and his wife Jezebel are, alas, the most well-known representatives, was not a stellar time for God's people up north. It required many a prophet, not just Elijah or Elisha, to speak against the Baal worship of the wicked or at least against weak King Ahab and his pagan wife. However, it wasn't only the worship of false gods that got the Omri dynasty into trouble with Yahweh, because the kings of Israel often illustrated what Lord Acton would say so succinctly many centuries later, about power corrupting, and absolute power corrupting absolutely. As we know, none of this was pleasing in the eyes of God. By the time we reach the end of Elijah's work, and the beginning of Elisha's, the reigns of Ahab and then his son, Ahaziah, have both ended in death, and now Ahab's other son, Jehoram, is king. Poor Jehoram will reap the consequences sown by his predecessors and will lose both his power and his place.
This second chapter in the second book of Kings appears to give away the ending of Elijah's story when it mentions that God was about to take the prophet up in the whirlwind (notice, by the way, that it was indeed the whirlwind and not the chariot that carried Elijah away), but we know that Elijah's story goes on, in fact, for Christians, his presence is felt in many ways in our New Testament. We may recall his appearance with Moses at the Transfiguration, or the perception that Jesus was calling for Elijah at his death, but even more significant is the way Jesus and his words and deeds made people remember Elijah.
However, our passage is from the Hebrew Scriptures, and the story it tells is rich with meaning, so rich that the commentators find it difficult to agree on what is going on inside the hearts and minds of its main characters, Elijah and Elisha. It's intriguing to try to read into what's happening here, to try to figure out why Elijah tells Elisha to stay behind, or why Elisha refuses to leave his teacher, or what Elisha means when he cries out at Elijah's departure. Perhaps he knows how much he will miss Elijah or how much he depends on him, the way any understudy looks up to a mentor. However, Tremper Longman III is persuasive in his claim that Elisha – who really wants to succeed Elijah – knows that he actually has to be with the great prophet in order to succeed him (The Lectionary Commentary: The Old Testament). (We can imagine his saying, "I am so not letting you out of my sight until I get that mantle of authority placed on my shoulders!")
By this time, there may even be a bit of tension between the two prophets, teacher and student – or, more accurately, according to Kathleen Robertson Farmer, teacher and servant. Maybe Elijah wasn't too crazy about this upstart that he had to accept just because God told him several chapters ago (back in 1 Kings 19:16) to anoint Elisha as "prophet in his place"; after all, Farmer says, Elisha followed him as his "servant" and not as his successor (Feasting on the Word Year C, Vol. 3). We have to wonder why Elijah has even a moment's doubt that Elisha is called by God to receive his mantle, his authority, as his heir, since God was the one who actually called Elisha in the first place.
This last journey of the traveling prophets is also open to more than one meaning, and the verses left out by the lectionary add to the suspense of the story (even if we do know the ending), as Elijah tells Elisha three times to "stay here" rather than to follow him all the way to his end. Elisha's refusal each time may also add suspense to the story, along with the curious observation – or warning – from the "company of prophets" at each stop who ask Elisha if he knows that God is taking his master away that same day, and Elisha's answer that he does indeed know. We can almost hear the grief and worry in the questions put to Elisha by the company of prophets, and the grief and worry in the voice of Elisha the Understudy-Soon-to-be-Head-Prophet. Yes, Elisha seems to say, he may be leaving, but don't talk about it. I can't bear it yet.
When the time finally comes for parting, Elisha realizes that his own path is laid out for him and that he will need help along the way. He knows that this great prophet has been, in many ways, a father to him, and he considers himself Elijah's heir. Not just any heir, but an eldest-son-kind-of-heir, the firstborn son who gets the extra measure of everything for his inheritance. And so, like an eldest son, he asks for a double portion of Elijah's spirit, twice as much as any other heir.
There is of course that dramatic moment when a chariot of fire and horses of fire separate the two, and Elijah is indeed carried away in the whirlwind, and Elisha cries out, "Father, Father! The chariots of Israel and its horsemen!" Tremper Longman points out the meaning between the lines here, for the imagery contradicts the cult of Baal as "the cloud-riding deity" with the power of the mighty God of Israel (The Lectionary Commentary: The Old Testament). Scholars find it difficult to explain Elisha's outcry, and we are left to wonder how it might feel for the Spirit of God to come upon us in such a dramatic way. (Ironically, we hear these same words from the king of Israel when Elisha himself dies, in 2 Kings 13:14.)
Some people say, with good reason, that we have a crisis of leadership in the world. One reads, for example, about the trial of Charles Taylor, the strongman who caused the death of countless thousands in West Africa, and the tragic consequences of bad leadership are brought vividly to life, or rather, to death. We know that Ahab was a bad leader, perhaps the worst of a bad lot. Retracing the line of succession from one such bad leader through another, we ask, "Where is the one who can rule with justice, wisdom, and gentle strength?" Just as importantly, we might ask, "And how will we recognize that leader when he or she comes?"
In the life of the faith community as well, there are moments of crisis, when a beloved pastor leaves or becomes ill or dies, and the community looks for new leadership, even in the midst of grieving. (Preachers will find a good sermon illustration in Carrie Mitchell's story in Feasting on the Word Year C, Vol. 3, about composer Giacomo Puccini's opera being finished by his students, and directed first by Arturo Toscanini.) The community, in its feelings of loss and being lost, understandably wants a clear signal when they seem to have a candidate that this one is "the One," and that this one can be trusted. Several writers find reassurance in this text that God will indeed raise up leaders of power and goodness, and will sustain them and their followers in whatever they face. Haywood Barringer Spangler connects this text with the African American spiritual, "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot," with "the chariot and the whirlwind [representing] divine support and deliverance [as well as] God's empowerment of believers for ministry in the world." Spangler urges us to discern God's will in our own lives, so that we might live faithfully, "embracing the suspense or ambiguity that is part of life" even as we ask, "What is God calling me to do in this situation?" Like Elisha, we may have to take action in order to find out the answer to that question (Feasting on the Word Year C, Vol. 3).
How much do we trust that God is at work in every loss and that God is working in mysterious and amazing ways, behind and below and above the scene? There are some very dramatic touches to this story of Elijah being carried up to heaven, chariots and fire and all, but the most powerful thing about the story, its heart, is something much more accessible to us for those times when we have lost a strong and beloved leader: God will send us the leader we need. Our prayer might be for the wisdom to recognize the right leader at the right time, and to have the courage to respond when we are offered our portion of the spirit of leadership ourselves.
Here the reflection of Trevor Eppehimer is particularly helpful in bringing this discernment process, and this call, into sharp focus, as he draws a bigger picture, for even this "little story" connects after all with Brueggemann's "Great Tradition." The story of the Bible and of our own lives is often that same old story, Eppeheimer writes, of "the struggle between YHWH and Pharaoh," for there are many manifestations of Pharaoh throughout the history of Israel, including, tragically, its own kings (who certainly should have known better). The challenge faced by Israel and by us as well "is remaining faithful to YHWH in a world in which Pharaoh appears to have all the power." In this "little story," we meet a character, a prophet, Elisha, who has the sense and the vision enough to know that YHWH, and not Pharaoh, is in charge (Feasting on the Word Year C, Vol. 3). In our search for leaders in the church, we may not ask such a question on our ministerial profiles, but perhaps we should spend much more time and attention - and prayer - considering the possibilities of being led by those whose vision is matched by hearts set on God and on God's will for the earth and its peoples.
2 Kings 2:1-2, 6-14
Now when the Lord was about to take Elijah up to heaven by a whirlwind, Elijah and Elisha were on their way from Gilgal. Elijah said to Elisha, "Stay here; for the Lord has sent me as far as Bethel." But Elisha said, "As the Lord lives, and as you yourself live, I will not leave you." So they went down to Bethel.
Then Elijah said to him, "Stay here; for the Lord has sent me to the Jordan." But he said, "As the Lord lives, and as you yourself live, I will not leave you." So the two of them went on. Fifty men of the company of prophets also went, and stood at some distance from them, as they both were standing by the Jordan. Then Elijah took his mantle and rolled it up, and struck the water; the water was parted to the one side and to the other, until the two of them crossed on dry ground.
When they had crossed, Elijah said to Elisha, "Tell me what I may do for you, before I am taken from you." Elisha said, "Please let me inherit a double share of your spirit." He responded, "You have asked a hard thing; yet, if you see me as I am being taken from you, it will be granted you; if not, it will not." As they continued walking and talking, a chariot of fire and horses of fire separated the two of them, and Elijah ascended in a whirlwind into heaven. Elisha kept watching and crying out, "Father, father! The chariots of Israel and its horsemen!" But when he could no longer see him, he grasped his own clothes and tore them in two pieces.
He picked up the mantle of Elijah that had fallen from him, and went back and stood on the bank of the Jordan. He took the mantle of Elijah that had fallen from him, and struck the water, saying, "Where is the Lord, the God of Elijah?" When he had struck the water, the water was parted to the one side and to the other, and Elisha went over.
Psalm 77:1-2, 11-20
I cry aloud to God, aloud to God,
that God may hear me.
In the day of my trouble
I seek God;
in the night my hand is stretched out
my soul refuses to be comforted.
I will call to mind the deeds of God;
I will remember your wonders of old.
I will meditate on all your work,
I will muse on your mighty deeds.
Your way, O God, is holy.
What god is so great as our God?
You are the God
who works wonders;
you have displayed your might
among the peoples.
With your strong arm
you redeemed your people,
you redeemed descendants
of Jacob and Joseph.
When the waters saw you, O God,
when the waters saw you,
they were afraid;
the very deep trembled.
The clouds poured out water;
the skies thundered;
your arrows flashed on every side.
The crash of your thunder
was in the whirlwind;
your lightnings lit up the world;
the earth trembled and shook.
Your way was through the sea,
your path, through the mighty waters;
yet your footprints were unseen.
You led your people like a flock
by the hand of Moses and Aaron.
1 Kings 19:15-16, 19-21
Then the Lord said to him, "Go, return on your way to the wilderness of Damascus; when you arrive, you shall anoint Hazael as king over Aram. Also you shall anoint Jehu son of Nimshi as king over Israel; and you shall anoint Elisha son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah as prophet in your place."
So he set out from there, and found Elisha son of Shaphat, who was ploughing. There were twelve yoke of oxen ahead of him, and he was with the twelfth. Elijah passed by him and threw his mantle over him. He left the oxen, ran after Elijah, and said, "Let me kiss my father and my mother, and then I will follow you." Then Elijah said to him, "Go back again; for what have I done to you?" He returned from following him, took the yoke of oxen, and slaughtered them; using the equipment from the oxen, he boiled their flesh, and gave it to the people, and they ate. Then he set out and followed Elijah, and became his servant.
Protect me, O God,
for in you I take refuge.
I say to God, "You are my God;
I have no good apart from you."
As for the holy ones in the land,
they are the noble,
in whom is all my delight.
Those who choose another god
multiply their sorrows;
their drink-offerings of blood
I will not pour out
or take their names upon my lips.
God is my chosen portion and my cup;
you hold my lot.
The boundary lines have fallen for me
in pleasant places;
I have a goodly heritage.
I bless God who gives me counsel;
in the night also my heart instructs me.
I keep God always before me;
because God is at my right hand,
I shall not be moved.
Therefore my heart is glad,
and my soul rejoices;
my body also rests secure.
For you do not give me up to Sheol,
or let your faithful one see the Pit.
You show me the path of life.
In your presence there is fullness of joy;
in your right hand are pleasures forevermore.
Galatians 5:1, 13-25
For freedom Christ has set us free. Stand firm, therefore, and do not submit again to a yoke of slavery.
For you were called to freedom, brothers and sisters; only do not use your freedom as an opportunity for self-indulgence, but through love become slaves to one another. For the whole law is summed up in a single commandment, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." If, however, you bite and devour one another, take care that you are not consumed by one another.
Live by the Spirit, I say, and do not gratify the desires of the flesh. For what the flesh desires is opposed to the Spirit, and what the Spirit desires is opposed to the flesh; for these are opposed to each other, to prevent you from doing what you want. But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not subject to the law. Now the works of the flesh are obvious: fornication, impurity, licentiousness, idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousy, anger, quarrels, dissensions, factions, envy, drunkenness, carousing, and things like these. I am warning you, as I warned you before: those who do such things will not inherit the kingdom of God.
By contrast, the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, generosity, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. There is no law against such things. And those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires. If we live by the Spirit, let us also be guided by the Spirit.
When the days drew near for him to be taken up, he set his face to go to Jerusalem. And he sent messengers ahead of him. On their way they entered a village of the Samaritans to make ready for him; but they did not receive him, because his face was set towards Jerusalem. When his disciples James and John saw it, they said, "Lord, do you want us to command fire to come down from heaven and consume them?" But he turned and rebuked them. Then they went on to another village.
As they were going along the road, someone said to him, "I will follow you wherever you go." And Jesus said to him, "Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head." To another he said, "Follow me." But he said, "Lord, first let me go and bury my father." But Jesus said to him, "Let the dead bury their own dead; but as for you, go and proclaim the kingdom of God." Another said, "I will follow you, Lord; but let me first say farewell to those at my home." Jesus said to him, "No one who puts a hand to the plough and looks back is fit for the kingdom of God."
Liturgical notes on the Readings
In ecumenical liturgical practice, there are normally three readings and one psalm at each Sunday service, in this order:
First Reading: Hebrew Scripture
Response: Psalm (or Canticle) from the Bible
Second Reading: Epistle (or Acts or Revelation)
Third Reading: Gospel
The first two lessons are normally read by laypeople, the Gospel by a Minister of the Word or a layperson. In Roman Catholic, Anglican and liturgical Protestant churches, it is uncommon for an ordained minister to read all of the lessons.
The psalm is not a reading but a congregational response following the lesson from Hebrew Scripture: it is normally sung with a refrain or recited by the congregation as poetry. Occasionally, a canticle is appointed in place of a psalm; it is sung or recited in the same way. The New Century Hymnal provides a complete liturgical psalter with refrains and music.
A hymn may be sung as an introduction to the proclamation of the Gospel.
During Ordinary Time (seasons after Epiphany and Pentecost) two alternative sets of OT readings with responsorial psalms are provided. The first option is a semi-continuous reading (Series 1) through a book of Hebrew Scripture; the second is thematically related to the other readings (Series 2). It is suggested that a congregation choose one option and follow it.